The Three Memory Systems Sensory Long Term — страница 2

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memory. George Miller discovered short term memory has a limited capacity that is an average of seven items. New information quickly replaces the old information. Working memory stores unrehearsed information for 30 to 20 seconds. Chunking increases the limited capacity of short term memory. It places separate pieces of information into larger chunks. Chunking is usually used with numbers and letters. For example, phone numbers are grouped into three chunks. This helps us remember phone numbers better. Baddeley discovered working memory consists of three components. The first is the rehearsal loop. As I discussed earlier, it involves rehearsal to memorize information. This enables us to remember sequences, letters and words. The second component is visuospatial sketchpad that

receives and codes data into visual images. The last component is executive control system. It handles the limited information that people can juggle at one time as they engage in reasoning and decision making (Weiten, 1998, p. 269). This helps with reasoning and mental arithmetic. Although short term memory has many disadvantages, it also has many advantages. Such as it helps filter unnecessary information so our minds are not cluttered. Working memory holds goals and plans that we are following and helps us achieve those goals at the moment. Short term memory can be compared to a central processing unit (CPU). It receives information, stores it, retrieves it, performs calculations and stores the answer, displays it or prints the answer out. Short term memory handles many

functions and depends on more complicated processes. Long Term Memory To an experimental psychologist the phrase ‘long-term memory’ refers to information that is stored sufficiently durably to be accessible over a period of anything more then a few seconds (Baddeley, 1982, 9.12). Long term memory has an unlimited capacity and information can be stored permanently. Long term memory can involve flashbulb memories, which are vivid and realistic memories. The memories stored in our long term file are usually the most meaningful memories. There are three types of long term memory; procedural, semantic, and episodic memory. Procedural memory is remembering how to do something. An example would be remembering how to use the quadratic formula. Semantic include recalling the factual

information but it excludes the time and the place. Episodic memory involves those memories that are personally meaningful. Long term memory organizes information so the retrieval process is easier. One of these organizations is clustering. Clustering is grouping information into a specific category. One can organize information into many levels based on common properties called conceptual hierarchy. Forgetting Many people believe forgetting is evil and we should avoid it as much as possible but forgetting can help us remember the important information It remembers the important information while disregarding the unimportant information. The problem (with forgetting) is that the mechanism of memory works independent is conscious thought (Kellett, 1980, p.113). Forgetting is

caused by failures in the encoding, storage and retrieval processes that I discussed earlier. Measures of Forgetting There are three main ways to memorize forgetting. To measure forgetting one most measure the information revived. One of which is recall which is when one produces information without any clues. An example of recall is an essay test. Sometimes we cannot recall something without a clue that is called aided recall. A person may not remember something without clues but it can be measured by how familiar the information is. This is called recognition that means to know or be aware of something perceived. An example of recognition would be multiple choice and matching tests. This measurement is usually easier. The last measurement of forgetting is relearning or savings.

This is measuring how long it takes one to learn something the second time. If they learn it quicker the second time then there is savings in learning time. Another way relearning can be measured is how many trials it takes until the information is memorized. Why do we forget? There are many theories that explain why we forget. One of which is decay which focuses on the storage of memory. This theory proposes memory traces fade with time. The crucial factor of this theory is the elapse of time. The longer there is a delay, the greater one may forget the information. This theory contributes to sensory and short term memory. Repression is a term used by psychoanalysts to denote the unconscious process by which the mind selectively blocks certain events or thoughts from being