The syllable is a double-faceted category — страница 3

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have stress predominantly on a given location in a word. Languages with variable stress enjoy more freedom for stress placement. (Слайд 14) French, e.g., is a language where word stress is normally fixed on the last syllable. The final syllable stress is an areal characteristic of Turkic languages, Iranian languages and the Armenian language. Other examples of fixed stress are Finnish and Czech, both with initial syllable stress, and Polish and Swahili, both with penultimate syllable stress. (CJIAЙД 15) A relatively small proportion of the languages of the world allow a range of different locations of stress: Dutch, English, Greek, Italian, Rumanian, Russian, Spanish etc. Here are some examples: English contact, re act, Russian правда, дopoгa, caмовар Some

authors say that in English word stress is free and fixed at the same time. It is fixed in the sense that you cannot change the position of syllable prominence in any given word at will. We have to observe the patterns that already exist. We cannot choose them according to the situation, style, etc. It is free in the sense that it can fall on any syllable. (CЛАЙД 16) Although word-stress in English is free, it is possible to talk about basic types of accentual patterns and about basic accentual tendencies. These two aspects are closely related, but should be kept separate. When we talk about tendencies, we are trying to discover the reasons why this or that accentual pattern has emerged into existence. There are semantic (recessive), retentive and rhythmic tendencies. The

semantic (recessive) tendency chooses the stressed syllable in the semantically predominant morpheme. This is usually the root morpheme of a word, e.g. decide, practical, etc. The retentive tendency accounts for preserving stress on the same syllable in derivative words as in beauty-beautiful-beautufy; wonder-wonderfully. The rhythmic tendency accounts for the appearance of a second stress in many English polysyllabic words. There is a tendency towards alternation between strong and weak syllables in speech and, in particular, within a word. This is why it is not common of English to have polysyllabic words with one stress only. Nevertheless, such words do exist: e.g. beautifully. 2010 Lecture 6. The Syllable as a Prosodic Category. Word-Stress Rules for predicting stress are

based on the morphological structure of words, i.e. they presuppose a classification of prefixes and suffixes into strong and weak according to their stress potential and it is also based on the classification of compound words according to the principles of their formation. The attempts to work out rules that would enable a learner to predict a word stress pattern are very popular in the current phonetic science. It is part of generative phonology. Degrees of stress (CJIAЙД 17) Phonetic prominence of a syllable in a word is relative, i.e. compared with the preceding one. But the speaker of a particular language is capable of categorizing the actual phonetic differences and distinguishing the phonologically relevant ones while ignoring those which are not relevant for word

recognition. Much of stress perception is done as expected, that is in anticipation of regular rhythmic beats or in analogy with other similar words. (CJIAЙД 18) The English word indivisibility illustrates different degrees of syllable prominence with an identical vowel [i]. Phonetically, there are, in fact, as many degrees of prominence as there are syllables in the word, namely, seven. However, phonologically, there are only three degrees: only one primary stress on bi, two secondary stresses - in, vi — and the rest of the syllables are termed as having a weak stress, which might also be called unstressed. (CJIAЙД 19, 20) Some authors also distinguish tertiary stress, which is as weak as secondary but has a different distribution: it follows the primary stress, while the

secondary stress precedes it. LPD defines tertiary stress as the location of a potential rhythmic beat either after the primary stress, or between the secondary and the primary (as in indivisibility). Tertiary stress is usually associated with American English words like laboratory ['l], territory ['t]'. However, there are two generally accepted degrees of stress: primary and secondary. Is secondary stress relevant? Perhaps, it is only a phonetic feature significant only for observing the pronunciation norm. Perhaps it doesn't matter as far as the meaning of a word is concerned. It is difficult to provide examples of words where secondary stress alone would lead to a difference in meaning (e.g. to 'undertake - to under'take). All dictionaries use the indication of secondary and