The syllable is a double-faceted category

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Lecture 6 (CJIAЙД 1) THE SYLLABLE AS A PROSODIC CATEGORY. WORD-STRESS. (CЛAЙД 2)The syllable is a double-faceted category: segmental and non-segmental, or suprasegmental, or prosodic. The terms "suprasegmental", "non-segmental" do not describe the phenomenon from the point of view of its structure. The phenomena termed "non-segmental" or suprasegmental are features that do not participate in the differentiation of sounds, i.e. segments. These features are referred to as prosodic and the phenomenon itself is termed speech prosody. A sound of speech is produced not only with the help of articulatory movements, but possesses such characteristics as loudness and pitch; it always lasts over some period of time (i.e. possesses some duration).

Generally speaking, speech sounds have the same acoustic properties as any sound produced by a living being or thing. Yet, the prosodic features of a speech signal are studied not for their own sake, but because they play a role in creating speech utterances both from the point of view of their form and their meaning. (CJIAЙД 3) The acoustic parameters of the speech signal which do not participate in distinguishing the segmental units — phonemes - are the fundamental frequency of the voice, intensity and duration. They form the physical, acoustic, correlates of the perceptible features of length, loudness and pitch. On the articuiatory level greater loudness is achieved by subglottal muscular adjustment which will create an acoustic effect of increased amplitude. However, our

perception of any of the prosodic properties is influenced by all the three parameters because they are always functioning as a structure, i.e. in combination. Very little has been discovered so far about the articulatory properties of prosody. (CJIAЙД 4) When we talk about the supra-segmental features of connected speech, we traditionally talk about speech melody, stress, rhythm, tempo (sometimes + pausation) and about speech timbre. This is the linguistic interpretation of the acoustic and perceptible prosodic features of speech. The first prosodic phenomenon that will be discussed today is stress, and it is here, within this phenomenon, that the syllable displays its linguistic, phonological, functions. (CJIAЙД 5) The syllable is the minimal carrier of prosodic contrasts.

The distinctive role of the syllable is demonstrated by the possibility of word stress-pattern oppositions such as ['impo:t - im'po:t]. The existence of such oppositions in a language, in English, in particular, is a sufficient proof of the phonological role of the 2010 Lecture 6. The Syllable as a Prosodic Category. Word-Stress phenomenon of stress and the phonological status of the syllable at the same time. Thus there are all grounds to state that the syllable as a prosodic unit performs a sense-distinctive role, as well as constitutive and identificatory. In English we can use the word 'stress' to refer generally to the way we emphasize something or give it prominence. So we talk about stressing (or putting particular stress on) a point: 'I would like to stress that'... Here,

obviously, we are referring to language at the level of discourse. But we also use the term to refer more specifically to the sounds of speech. If we listen to spoken language we can hear that certain elements seem to be given more prominence or emphasis. Apparently it is our knowledge of the language system that makes us pick out certain cues from the sound stream and ascribe to them the value 'stress'. We need to be quite clear that the term 'stress' is used in two different ways. (СЛАЙД 6} One use is as a conventional label for the overall prominence 0f certain syllables over others. The second, and narrower, use of the term 'stress' is concerned with the way in which speakers actually achieve this impression of prominence, i.e. its physiological cause. (CJIAЙД. 7) In