The subject of Theoretical Grammar

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1. The subject of Theoretical Grammar. Different approaches to the analysis of l-ge phenomena. L. Incorporates the 3 constituent parts. These parts are the phonological system, the lexical system, the grammatical system. Only the unity of these 3 elements forms a l-ge. The phonological syst. determines the material (phonetical) appearance of its significative units. The lexical syst. is the whole set of naming means of l-ge, that is, w-ds and word-groups. The gr. syst. is the whole set of regularities determining the combination of naming means in the formation of utterances. Traditionally, grammar is determined as the syst. of rules of changing of the word and the rules and regulations of their combining in the sent. That is why it is divided into 2 parts: morphology (rules

of word’s changing) and syntax (rules of word combining into sentences).The aim of theor. Gr. of the lang. is to present a theor. description of its gr. system, i.e. to scientifically analyze and define its gr. categories and study mechanisms of gr. formation of utterances out of words in the process of speech making. The nature of grammar as a constituent part of language is better understood in the light of explicitly discriminating the 2 planes of l-ge, namely, the plane of content and the plane of expression. The plane of content comprises the purely semantic elements con­tained in l-ge, while the plane of expression comprises the material (formal) units of l-ge taken by themselves, apart from meanings rendered by them. The 2 planes are inseparably connected, so that no

meaning can be realized without some material means of expression. Gram. elements of l-ge present a unity of content and ex­pression (a unity of form and mean­ing). In this the gr. elements are similar to the lingual lexical elements, though the quality of gr. meanings, as we have stated above, is different in principle from the quality of lexical meanings. On the other hand, the correspondence between the planes of con­tent and expression is very complex, and it is peculiar to each language. This complexity is clearly illustrated by the phenomena of polysemy, homonymy and synonymy. Lingual units stand to one another in 2 fundamental types of rela­tions: syntagmatic and paradigmatic. Syntagmatic relations are immediate linear relations between units in a segmental

sequence. E.g.: The spaceship was launched without the help of a booster rocket. In this sentence syntagmatically connected are the words and word-groups the spaceship, was launched, the spaceship was launched, was launched without the help, the help of a rocket, a booster rocket. Paradigmatic relations coexist with syntagmatic relations in such a way that some sort of syntagmatic connection is necessary for the reali­zation of any paradigmatic series. This is especially evident in a classical grammatical paradigm which presents a productive series of forms each consisting of a syntagmatic connection of two elements: one common for the whole of the series, the other specific for every individual form in the series. Grammatical paradigms express various grammatical categories.

The minimal paradigm consists of 2 form-stages. This kind of paradigm we see, for instance, in the expression of the category of number: boy - boys. A more complex paradigm can be divided into component paradigmatic series, i.e. into the corresponding sub-para­digms. In other words, with paradigms, the same as with any other systemically organized material, macro- and micro-series are to be dis­criminated. Units of language are divided into segmental and supra-segmental. Segmental units consist of phonemes, they form phonemic strings of various status (syllables, morphemes). Supra-segmental units do not exist by themselves, but are realized together with segmental units and express different modificational meanings (functions) which are re­flected on the strings of