The Souix Nation Essay Research Paper On — страница 2

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Last Stand. This was a costly battle and sparked Congress to come up with alternatives on how to deal with the Sioux. Belligerent Sioux. One suggestion was to completely uproot them from South Dakota and move them south to the Indian Territory. Another alternative was to place the Sioux under permanent military control. This suggestion was put forth by General Sheridan who was in charge of a regiment in the Dakota Territory around the time of the Custer. He felt that the Sioux were incurable savages who could not be taught civilized methods. The only way to control the Sioux in his eyes was to keep them on reservations under strict military control. This was granted in 1876 as a war measure. The Sioux who were led by Sitting Bull remained off the reservation and were in constant

pursuit by the United States military in the plains of Montana. The army was relentless even in the winter months and the Sioux?s morale was low. Their shelters and food had been lost, taken or burned and by February the Sioux who remained off the reservation felt that the war against the United States could not be won. The famished Sioux on reservations soon offered peace that meant unconditional surrender. In the early spring of 1877 three thousand Sioux on reservations surrendered. A small group led by an Indian named Lame Deer would not surrender. Soon the rebellious Sioux were discovered on the Rosebud River by soldiers and Lame Deer was killed. Their camp was burned and the surviving Sioux fled. After this defeat, Sitting Bull now seriously weighed his two options, flee to

Mexico or Canada. Canada seemed more realistic and that sanctuary could actually be found. There were still some problems though, such as poor relations with Canadian tribes such as the Chippewas or Blackfoot. An increase of Indians in the one of these tribes? hunting grounds could sever already fragile relations between the Sioux and Canadian tribes. Sitting Bull and the other Sioux slowly began to cross over the Canadian border by the winter of 1877. They had a difficult time buying ammunition from forts over the Canadian border, so they turned to the Canadian Metis traders, people of French and Indian descent who hunted and trapped on the Canadian plains. Sitting Bull and the Sioux were safely out of the reach of the United States army, but had the Canadian Mounted Police to

now deal with. After much consideration and thought the Canadian officials decided upon a happy medium for the fate of the Sioux. The Sioux would be allowed to remain in Canada as long as they were peaceful, but would receive no help from the government. This is due to the fact that if the Sioux were to receive aid, there would be an unbalance of power between the Canadian tribes and the Sioux. The United States soon became very anxious about the situation and began negotiations with the Canadian government. The Mounted Police convinced Sitting Bull and the Sioux to come to Fort Benton and hear the offer from United States. It was similar to the ones before, they must give up their arms and ammunition and the United States will provide them with rations of food on the

reservations. The Sioux refused to leave Canada still though. Right before their decision to remain in Canada, the Sioux heard of the death of another Sioux who had always refused to return to the reservation, Crazy Horse. He finally surrendered and returned to the reservation, only to be killed after resisting when placed under arrest. The Sioux were convinced to stay in Canada as long as the means of survival still remained. By the summer of 1878, food was quickly becoming scarce. The Canadian government stood by it decision saying that they would not help the Sioux refugees only allow them to seek asylum. The situation worsened into 1879 when it looked like even surrender to the United States was impossible for Sitting Bull and his followers. By 1880, almost a thousand Sioux

had surrendered to General Miles, going against Sitting Bull and his council. James Walsh, a Mounted Police officer and friend to the Sioux brought their case before Prime Minister Macdonald in Ottawa, but was rejected and ordered to take a new position in the police. The Sioux remained in limbo and hungry for the rest of 1880 while officials from Canada and the United States could not come to a common solution on what to do about the Sioux situation. Finally on July 19, 1881 Sitting Bull entered Fort Buford in the Dakota Territory and surrendered himself and the remaining two hundred Sioux to the United States army. The Sioux remained quiet on the reservation until the large Ghost Dance Movement of the late 1880?s and early 1890?s. This Ghost Dance movement was a religion