The Solar System Essay Research Paper Our — страница 3

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planets combined. Jupiter is 778,330,000 km from the Sun. Jupiter probably has a core of rocky material amounting to something like 10 to 15 Earth-masses. Above the core lies the main bulk of the planet in the form of liquid metallic hydrogen. The vivid colors seen in Jupiter’s clouds are probably the result of subtle chemical reactions of the trace elements in Jupiter’s atmosphere, perhaps involving sulfur whose compounds take on a wide variety of colors, but details are unknown. Earthly observers for mote than 300 years have seen the Great Red Spot. The Great Red spot is an oval about 12,000 by 25,000 km, big enough to hold two Earths. Jupiter radiates more energy into space that it receives from the Sun. The interior of Jupiter is hot: the core is probably about 20,000 K.

The heat is generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism, the slow gravitational compression of the planet. Jupiter is just about as large in diameter as a gas planet can be. If more material were to be added, it would be compressed by gravity such that the overall radius would increased. A star can be larger only because of its internal heat source. Jupiter would have to be at least 80 times more massive to become a star. Jupiter has a huge magnetic field, much stronger than Earth’s. It extends more than 650 million km in the direction toward the Sun. Jupiter has rings like Saturn, but much fainter and smaller. Unlike Saturn’s, Jupiter’s rings are dark. They’re probably composed of very small grains of rocky material. Unlike Saturn’s rings, they see to contain no ice.

Jupiter has 16 known satellites, he four moons and 12 small ones. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the 2nd largest at 1,429,400,000 km from the Sun. Saturn is the least dense of the plants; its specific gravity (0.7) is less than water, methane, ammonia and “rock” , similar to the composition of the primordial from which the solar system was formed. Saturn’s interior is similar to Jupiter’s composition of a rocky core, a layer of a molecular hydrogen layer. Traces of various are also present. Saturn’s interior is hot (12000 K at the core) and Saturn radiates more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. Saturn is the last of the naked eye planets. Saturn has 18 satellites, more than any other planet in the solar system. Cameras of Voyagers 1 and2

revealed that there are really ten of thousands of rings extending from about 4,300 miles to 46,000 miles. The Rings are composed of dust and frozen water and possibly premoon mater. Rings are also divided into three main parts, A, B, C. Uranus is another large gaseous planet. It is denser than Jupiter and Saturn and is composed of hydrogen, helium, substantial amounts of water, and probably some methane, ammonia, rock, and metal. Trace amounts of methane in its upper atmosphere hive it a blue-green color. The temperature increases with atmospheric depth. The core of the planet is most likely rock and metal. Uranus’ rotational axis is tilted an unusually great 98 degrees from a hypothetical line perpendicular to the ecliptic plane. Uranus rotates in retrograde, or clockwise,

motion about once every 17 hours. The planet has a strong magnetic field in which the magnetic north is tilted and exceptionally great 60 degrees from the rotational North Pole. Uranus has 15 known satellites, which are composed mostly of ice and are heavily created. Little was known about the planet Neptune, which was discovered in 1846. Its mass is comparable to that of Uranus, and it has a similar composition. Its thick atmosphere of hydrogen, helium, and some methane gives it a bluish color. Like the other gaseous planets, Neptune rotates rapidly, once every 16.1 hours, and has a slightly larger diameter at the equator that at the poles. The atmospheric temperature has been found to be at about 60 K, higher than expected for a body so far from the sun. (4,504,000.000 km from

Sun) Its high temperature suggests that Neptune has another, possibly internal, heat source. The planet probably has a rocky core surrounded by water ice and liquid methane, which in turn are surrounded by hydrogen and helium gasses. Neptune has rapid winds confined to bands of latitude and large storms or vortices. Neptune’s winds are the fastest in the solar system, reaching 2000 km/ hour. Neptune has eight known satellites. The largest satellite, triton revolves around Neptune in a direction opposite to that of the other satellites in the solar system. Nereid, the second largest revolves in the normal direction but in a very eccentric orbit. Pluto was discovered in 1930, when looking for planet X. Pluto is a tiny, low-density planet made up of 97 percent nitrogen and small