The Significance Of Reason Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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contract. In order to accomplish that, Locke stressed that parents need to teach their children how to labor early on. Children must learn abstract reasoning as soon as possible so they can leave the state of nature and enter into society. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, on the other hand, believed that the ?self? was more important than society. Reason is a tool which helps us to develop self-sufficiency and teaches us good versus bad. It is the arbitrator of sentiment and senses, things which, to him, were much more plausible that reason, itself. Children are filled with an abundance of imagination and creativity, and their senses guide them through their daily lives. Rousseau believed that a child?s sensations ?are the first materials of knowledge? (64), for things which derive from

the senses are easy to perceive. This is what inspires a child to want to learn and to want to cultivate his/her reason. It is easier, he suggests, to show a child something than to teach him something that he/she cannot fully comprehend. As the saying goes, ?the unexamined life is not worth living.? To Rousseau, experience and hands-on learning would be far more instrumental in a child?s life than reason. It is necessary to force a child ?to learn by himself? (207), not from another person?s idea of what reason should or should not be. It is far better, he believed, for a child to know a few things which he/she could call ?truly his [her] own? (207), than to know several things only partially without fully understanding them. Rousseau thought that by developing a child?s nature

(or the cultivation of his/her reason), less emphasis would be put on the development of the senses. And to him, it was the senses which were far more critical in a child?s life. Rousseau felt that humankind should steer away from society. It is far more important for us to listen to the self than to adhere to authority. To him, it was society which was affecting the children, causing them to be more demanding, ego-centric, less appreciative, more selfish, dependent on others, and ungrateful. These problems, in turn, led to deeper psychological disorders, such as insecurity complexes, lack of empathy, and lack of trust in others. Rousseau suggested that if parents stop restricting their children and let nature take its course, their children would have less problems in the

long-run. Parents also must give their children more freedom to explore and keep them within the ?state of nature? as long as possible; this will make children more independent and self-sufficient and lead them more quickly towards self-efficacy and individualism. These qualities were Rousseau?s ideals, a far contrast with Locke?s, which was based upon conformity within society through a social contract. Since living within society is fairly unavoidable, Rousseau said that it is crucial to know how to live with others and how society, itself, works. It is important for the grown child to learn about the passions of others so he/she can prevent being deceived in the future by others. People must learn not through abstract reasoning, but through concrete reasoning, which allows

them to recognize their limits, wills, and desires. Imagination would not be encouraged by Rousseau because it leads to creativity and technology, things which, inevitably, cause change. And in order for society to remain stable, change is simply not possible. Rousseau saw something wrong with 18th-century society and morals. He suggested that we should stay away from conformity and binding ourselves into societies for as long as possible. But Locke did not feel this way. He thought that society was necessary to preserve the law of reason. To him, entering into the social contract should be done as soon as possible. Independence and freedom were less important to Locke than they were to Rousseau. Reason was less important to Rousseau than to Locke. The significance of reason,

therefore, would be far more important to John Locke than to Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 33b