The Seminole Essay Research Paper The Seminole — страница 3

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played one tribe off for another and caused more chaos.? As a result, many tribes were reduced in size, and many people were homeless and hopeless.? (Garbarino 36) ??????? Soon afterward, the English presence in America grew, and colonists began to settle on Indian land.? In 1715, the settlers and the Yamassee tribe began to fight.? The Yamassee were badly defeated, and they moved into Northern Florida, where there was no competition for land.? The state of Georgia worked as a buffer between the Spanish and the English.? (Garbarino 37)? Many African slaves and Indians lived in the buffer zone and were not bothered.? The Indians accepted the blacks in their tribes and they even inter-married.? Then, the English established the colony of Georgia, so the area could no longer be an

area for runaways.? All of the people fled to Florida, where the Europeans mispronounce their names.? The Europeans called them Seminoles when the word is really simanoli.? In 1763, Britain forced Spain to trade Florida for Cuba.? (Garbarino 39) ??????? In 1783, Florida became Spanish after Great Britain lost the Revolutionary War.? The period of peace and prosperity was now over for the Seminoles.? The American settlers were soon attracted to the fertile land that the Seminole owned.? Some of them even trespassed and set up farms.? (Lepthien 16)? The Indians warned them that they would be attacked if they did not leave.? The Americans did not comply with the Seminole, so they raided the American Homesteads.? Also, at this time, the plantation owners whose slaves had become

Seminoles, demanded their slaves back, and they sent slave-catchers to the Seminole lands.? (Garbarino 39) ??????? The War of 1812 also affected the Seminole because some were with the United States, and some were with Great Britain.? As a result of continuing skirmishes between the United States and the Seminole, the United States declared war on the Florida Indians in 1817.? They claimed that their mission was to recapture slaves, but the soldiers illegally went into Florida, and since the Spanish control in Florida was weak, U.S. continued to raid into Spanish territory.? The Seminole villages were burned, livestock captured, and food was destroyed or confiscated.? The fighting between the Seminole and the United States was later known to be the First Seminole War.? It was

fought from 1817-1818.? (Seminole 626)? The Seminole fought bravely.? Billy Bowlegs led the Seminole.? The United States Army was led by Andrew Jackson, who later became President.? Many Indians were killed in the fighting, and those that survived, retreated into the marsh.? Andrew Jackson’s victory caused the Spanish to sign a treaty with the U.S. setting up Florida for sale.? On February 22, 1821, Florida became a part of the United States of America.? (Garbarino 40-41) ??????? On September 6, 1823, near St. Augustine, 70 Seminole chiefs met with Florida governor William P. DuVal to discuss the removal of the Seminole.? Most of the Seminole Chiefs agreed to the Indians move to a reservation further south.? The Seminole gave the U.S. 30 million acres of fertile farmland, and

the U.S. gave them 5 million acres of land that was unfit for cultivation.? The Seminoles took a year to move, and when they go there, they were soon afflicted by widespread hunger.? They grew more and more discontented with their present situation. ??????? By the year 1830, the Seminole’s old land was already settled, and the homesteaders were looking for more.? The Federal Government was planning to remove all Eastern Indians to the west of Mississippi.? President Andrew Jackson was given the authority to relocate the Eastern Indian Tribes.? In 1832, some Seminole decided that they could fight no more, so they moved, but the two most powerful leaders, Micanopy and King Philip, refused to leave.? They believed that they had rearranged their lives so much that they were going

to stay.? Seven Seminole leaders went to check out the reservation that they were going to be put on, and there, the leaders signed the Treaty of Fort Gibson, in which they agreed to move.? When the leaders returned to Florida, they said that they were tricked into signing the treaty, and they refused to leave.? (Garbarino 45-46) The Seminole were given until January 1, 1836 to move by.? One month before the deadline, Seminole warriors began to raid against U.S. troops stationed in Florida, thus began the Second Seminole War.? (Garbarino 46)? This was one of the most costly U.S. versus Indian wars.? This war lasted for seven years.? Their brave leader, Osceola, led the Seminole.? The warriors hid the families in the Everglades, and they used guerrilla warfare.? This war cost the