The Rules And Duties Of Citizens And — страница 2

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the right to rule with a view to the advantage of the master. Although Aristotle did not believe this should be the case, he did provide that right to mastery political rule (Reeve 72). Aristotle believed that successful political rule had the right to rule with a view to the advantage of the city as a whole. While Aristotle wanted to avoid rule by a single man because it was apolitical, he does not deny that if such an outstanding person or group of people existed, it would be irrational not to allow them to rule. Rulers can have different rights according to Socrates, Machiavelli and Aristotle, but one thing found in common among all three philosophers is that they all propose the rights of the rulers with respect to the citizens of the city, which can be further explained

through the duties of citizens. Socrates believed that the supreme moral duty of philosophical life was to question people regarding their own supposed knowledge and to show them that their wisdom extends only as far as their acceptance of their ignorance. In this respect, Socrates believes he is helping people gain wisdom and overcome ignorance (Jowett 14). Machiavelli believed that the ruler had various duties. One obligation included that a ruler who intended to by successful must be prepared to do bad things on occasion, when political realities demand such actions. Machiavelli also believed that it was the duty of a ruler to have characteristics of both the lion and the fox. He thought that the bravery and strength of the lion would not be enough to enable the ruler to

escape the traps set by his enemies and therefore the slyness of the fox would also be needed. Machiavelli offered Septimius Severus, who served as Roman emperor from 193-211A.D. as an example of a new prince who effectively used the techniques of both the lion and the fox to maintain himself in power (Wooton 55). In addition, Machiavelli believed that it was a ruler’s duty to achieve the art of war. He held that the cultivation of this art was the chief means of gaining and keeping power, and that the neglect of this art was the chief means of losing power (Wooton 43). Aristotle was not as complicated in that he believed the duty of a ruler was to rule for the sake of the common good. He believed that rulers with this obligation were from the correct regimes and the regimes

that look to the advantage of the rulers are unjust (Reeve 73). The duties of rulers are diverse according to the three philosophers, but it can be assumed confidently that they all agree on the duty of rulers having knowledge in order to govern. While Socrates, Machiavelli and Aristotle all propose different views on the rights and duties of citizens and rulers, their ideas can be taken out of context to find that they do indeed share some similar ground. Personally, I think that Aristotle had the strongest ideas about the rights and duties of citizens, while Machiavelli had the most powerful ideas about the rights and duties of a ruler. Overall, all three philosophers have contributed to the foundation for all succeeding political and moral philosophy because whether based on

similar or different views, they have set the ground rules for the rights and duties of citizens and rulers. Plato’ Apology Machiavelli’s The Prince Aristotle’s Politics