The Role of Grammatical Transformations While Translating
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THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION THE MOSCOW POWER ENGINEERING INSTITUTE (TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY) The Institute of Linguistics Department of Applied Linguistics and Translation Techniques DIPLOMA PAPER Speciality: Translation and Translation Techniques Subject: “The Role of Grammatical Transformations While Translating (based on “For Whom The Bell Tolls” by Ernest Hemingway)” Performed by: Druzhinin Nikita Supervisor: Dorohina M. . Moscow 2009 Contents Abstract (English/Russian) 2 Introduction 3 Chapter 1 7 1.1. Overview of Basic Terminology and Aims 7 1.2. Levels of analysis and synthesis in translation 9 1.3. Preserving the meaning structure of the source text 10 1.4. Author’s Style and Its Significance for Translation 11 Chapter 2 17 2.1. Lexical Transformations 17 2.2. Morphological Transformations 25 2.2.1. Article 25 22.214.171.124. Indefinite Article 26 126.96.36.199. Definite Article 27 2.2.2. Unconformity of the Category of Number 28 2.2.3. Grammatical Gender 29 2.2.4. Change of Parts of Speech 30 2.2.5. Unconformity of the Tense 32 2.3. Syntactical transformations 34 2.3.1. Transposition of sentence members 34 2.3.2. Transformation of Simple Sentence into Complex Sentence 35 2.3.3. Transformation of Complex Sentence into Simple Sentence 36 2.3.4. Sentence Fragmentation 39 2.3.5. Sentence Integration 40 2.3.6. Transformation of Two-Member Sentence into a Mononuclear Sentence 41 2.3.7. Transformation of the Type of Syntactic Cohesion 42 2.3.8. Change of Actual Sentence Fragmentation During Translation 43 2.4. Summary on Different Types of Transformations 47 2.4.1. Table on General Types of Transformations 53 Conclusion 55 Bibliography 59 Abstract The present thesis focuses on the Role of Grammatical Transformations on the basis of the novel “For Whom The Bell Tolls” by Ernest Hemingway. It comprises the introductory part, three subject chapters – lexical, morphological and grammatical transformations, and the conclusion. Chapter 1 overviews basic terminology and aims of the thesis and refers to the works of such scholars as Matuzkova E.P., Shekhovtseva M.D., Frolov A.A., Shveitser L.D., Levitskaya T.R., Fiterman A.M., Barhudarov L.S., Komissarov V.K., Vinogradov V.S., and Arturo Pascual. The first chapter outlines the scheme of the following chapter defining levels of analysis in translation. Chapter 2 begins with highlighting the importance of preserving the structure of the source text and induces explanation of the author’s literary style whose novel laid the basis of the thesis practical parts. The chapter involves practical research of three types of transformations. Each subdivision on transformation type points out the most typical transformations as in translation practice as in the understudied novel in particular. The chapter ends with the table containing the most typical transformation with certain examples. The conclusion underlines the result of the research carried out. It defines the main role of transformations techniques and marks the reason for those transformations. Introduction Translation implies correct and comprehensive rendering what is expressed in one language by means of the other language.  The present work is focused on the grammatical transformations that are vital while converting linguistic units of the source text into the text of the target language. According to the definition by V.N. Komissarov, literary translation is such a kind of translation, which is supposed to create a literary text in the target language and influence the reader emotionally and aesthetically. For this reason a lot of critics believe that the literary translation is a piece of art, which is dominated by masters only who follow only aesthetic criteria while making a translation. The reasons mentioned afore give the ground to consider the literary translation to be as a linguistic phenomenon as a literary one.