The Role Of Dominant Ethnicity In Racism

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The Role Of Dominant Ethnicity In Racism Essay, Research Paper Hegemonic racism In his mapping of dominant racisms, David Theo Goldberg (1990, p.xii) points out that racism has usually been considered “an ahistorical, unchanging social condition always presupposing claims about biological nature and inherent superiority or ability.” Teun A. van Dijk (1993, p.122) sees racism as a form of group dominance in terms of power abuse, or “self-interested control over and as a limitation of access to socially valued resources (residence, citizenship, housing, jobs, wealth, education, respect, etc.)” It manifests itself in a number of ways, typically based on long-standing patterns of inequality and discriminatory prejudices whose origins may not even be remembered. Racism’s

societal “expression, enactment, and legitimation” may take place, as mitherman-Donaldson and van Dijk (1988, p.17) point out, at a symbolic level. Sociologist Joseph F. Healey (1995, pp.277-8) has posited these themes for analyzing dominant-minority relations: 1.The present condition of a minority group reflects its contact situation, especially the nature of its competition with the dominant group and the differential in power resources between groups at the time of contact. 2.Minority groups created by colonization experience economic and political inequalities that tend to last longer and to be more severe than those experienced by minority groups created by immigration. 3.For all minority groups, both colonized and immigrant, power and economic differentials and barriers

to upward mobility are especially pronounced for groups identified by racial or physical characteristics, as opposed to cultural or linguistic traits. 4.Relationships between dominant and minority groups reflect the economic and political characteristics of the larger society and change as those characteristics change. 5.The development of group relations, both in the past and for the future, can be analyzed in terms of assimilation and pluralism. 6.The “mood” of the dominant group over the last 25 years combines a rejection of blatant racism with the belief that modern American society is nondiscriminatory and that further reforms or special programs or treatment for minority groups are unjustified. 7.Since World War II, minority groups have gained significantly more control

over the direction of group relationships. “Racism is maintained from generation to generation not simply because of economic gain and the reservation of white material privilege, but also by the necessity to maintain a belief in white racial superiority,” Bowser, Auletta, and Jones (1993, p.17) point out in their reference to white dominance on American campuses. They add, “Racism is maintained from generation to generation not simply because of economic gain and the preservation of white material privilege, but also by the necessity to maintain a belief in white racial superiority. The maintenance of physical racial purity grows out of a social identity built around our peculiar physical definition of race. The necessity to maintain racism also grows out of the way in

which this identity must be insulated in order to remain unchanged.” Lucius Outlaw (1990, p.59), drawing on the works of Gramsci (e.g., 1971), questions the idea of race as, “An obvious, biologically or metaphysically given, thereby self-evident reality–to challenge the presumptions sedimented in the ‘reference schemata’ that, when socially shared, become common sense, whether through a group’s construction of its life world and/or through hegemonic imposition.” Often associated with Marxist cultural theory, hegemony most often refers to domination or rule by a nation or state, a socio-political mix of culture and ideology. According to Celeste Michelle Condit (1994, p.205), ” The use of hegemony has become primarily a popular substitute for the older buzzword,