The Rise Of Prussia Essay Research Paper

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The Rise Of Prussia Essay, Research Paper RISE AND GROWTH OF NATIONAL STATES FORMATION AND GROWTH OF PRUSSIA EARLY HISTORY OF PRUSSIA. The German Ducy of Brandenberg in north central Europe on the Baltic Sea was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. This was ruled by the Hohenzollern family, a line of rulers, called Electors. Since the 15th Century they had gradually extended their borders. FREDERICK WILLIAM – 1640-1688-THE GREAT ELECTOR. Frederick made Prussia first among the German states. He centralized the government, and raised enough money to build up a strong army. His son Frederick I (1701-13) took the title of King of Prussia. Frederick William II (1713-40) annexed Swedish Pomerania. FREDERICK II (THE GREAT) – 1740-1786-GREATEST PRUSSION KING. As an enlightened despot

Frederick the Great encouraged education and religious toleration; he promoted industry and built canals, roads and bridges. In foreign affairs, he seized the rich province of Silesia from Austria and successfully fought off attempts to regain it in the Seven Years War (1756-63). This war involved the major nations of Europe, with England on the side of Prussia, and France helping Austria. The war was fought in America, too, but there it was known as the French and Indian War. In 1772 Frederick took part in the first of three partitions of Poland and gained the western part of that country. By the time he died, Frederick had made Prussia the most miltaristic and centralized government in all of Europe. He had also doubled its area and army, and made it a serious rival to Austria

in the management of German affairs – long a monopoly of the Hapsburgs. NATIONALISM AS A FACTOR IN WORLD HISTORY THE LANGUAGE OF NATIONALISM. Many 19th-Century authors insisted that just as a person has an inalienable (cannot be surrendered or transferred) right to freedom, so did each nationality have a natural right to a separate political life. The nationalist movement did more to change the map of the world than any other single force. Nationalism is an emotion of feeling of intense loyalty of a group of people to their state. These loyalties may be based on geographical boundaries, one religion, same language, common customs and traditions. A nationality is a group of people who have such a common heritage. A national state is an independent country consisting of such a

nationality. Patriotism means devotion to the welfare of one s country. Chauvinism and jingosim are extreme nationalism for unreasonable glory, especially of the sort fed by military deeds. FORMS OF NATIONALIST EXPRESSION. Nationalism expressed itself in a variety of ways. It led to: 1. Changing the Map of the World. As people came under the influence of nationalist ideas, those who were not free from foreign rule sought and fought for their freedom. Since 1945, 40 new countries have come into existence. 2. The Development of Militarism. As the nation-in-arms became more common, the building up of armed forces became an important expression of nationalism. 3. Frequent Wars. Force was the usual method by which a nation won its freedom or, after gaining it, sought to increase its

power. 4. Imperialistic Adventures. Winning control of and exploiting undeveloped areas of the world was part of the role of a great power. This became a dominant motive for countries which gained nationhood fairly late – like Germany and Italy. 5. Economic Nationalism. The new national states tried to become self- sufficient. This meant placing tariffs on foreign goods to stimulate domestic production and having colonies serve as sources for raw materials or markets for finished products. HOW NATIONALISM IS KEPT ALIVE. An important force in helping nationalism grow was the state-controlled school system. (That is why many struggles took place on the issue of state- versus-church control of schools.) Studies in geopraphy, history, art and scientific achievement promote feelings