The Rise And Fall Of Prohibition In — страница 4

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and both the government and bootleggers in business.28 The government sale system, whereby the government was given a commission of the sales and distribution monopoly on spirits and wines, replaced the much violated prohibition law in 1921.29 Intoxicating beverages were placed in two categories based on intoxication capacities. The less intoxicating was easier to obtain while the more intoxicating posed more of a problem. Beer was bought by the bottle (store) or glass (tavern). Besides being served at meal-times, wine had no limit on the amount available for purchase. Only a restriction seemed to be on hard liquors that could be bought, for private consumption, at a government store one bottle at a time. British Columbia and the Yukon soon abandoned total prohibition in 1921.

Following them was Ontario and the Prairie provinces, Newfoundland in 1925, New Brunswick in 1927, and Nova Scotia in 1929. Prince Edward Island stayed dry until 1948. Most provinces abandoned prohibition in favour of government-controlled liquor stores. The latter half of the 1920s saw an increased demand for the legalization of alcohol and a decrease in strength of those opposed.30 The end of prohibition was a difficult adjustment, especially for single female parents who were particularly evident in the retail trade.31 They were aided somewhat by the Mother’s Allowance Bill of 1930.32 It has been suggested that rum-running in the Maritimes was economically based on our of work fishermen selling their boats to rum-runners. This “… created a growing market for second-hand

boats, and eventually, for new vessels from the boat yards of the region.”33 The collapse of prohibition can be attributed to several items. Disillusionment in the extent of preventing crime, poverty and disease, as well as frustration at the difficulty of enforcing its laws all contributed to its demise.34 A compromise of sorts spelled the end of an era of prohibition. Citizens wanted to drink and the government needed money. The introduction of liquor sales as revenue for the government solved both issues. The public, to whom prohibition forces were preaching, had also changed during the 1920’s. They were the product of the Great War and the Roaring Twenties and wanted no part of the prohibition movement.35 A lack of revenue to fund social programs may also have contributed

to the death of prohibition. Reform groups had to choose between an increasingly unpopular law and social welfare programs that were desperately required. Prohibition can be looked at as a struggle between the working class and the establishment. Prohibition joined education as part of a struggle to minimize the influence foreigners held on the development of a province. The question divided Canada in the midst of finding its own identity in turbulent times, adding much to the country’s history. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Bleasdale, Ruth, Drink and Drugs. Class Notes 2. Blocker J. S. Jr., Retreat From Reform: The Prohibition Movement in the United States 1890 – 1913., Westport, Conn. Greenwood Press, 1976. 3. Cashman, S. D., Prohibition: The Lie of the Land, New York, The Free Press,

1981. 4. Clark, N. H., Deliver Us From Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition, New York, Norton & Company Inc., 1976. 5. Forbes, E., “Rum in the Maritimes” (found in text readings for History 2222B) 6. Fosdick, R. B. & Scott, A. L., Toward Liquor Control, New York, Harper & Brothers, 1933. 7. Grant, B. J., When Rum Was King, Fredericton, Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1984. 8. Hunt, C. W., Booze, Boats, and Billions: Smuggling Liquid Gold, Toronto, McClelland & Steward, 1988. 9. Kyvig, D. E., Repealing National Prohibition, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1979. 10. Merz, C., The Dry Decade, New York, Doubleday, 1930. 11. Rose, C., Four Years With the Demon Rum, Fredericton, Acadiensis Press, 1980. 12. Webb, R., “The Most Famous Rum-Runner of Them

All”, CD-Rom brief, 1982. UNPUBLISHED THESIS 1. Strople, M. J., Prohibition and Movements of Social Reform in Nova Scotia 1894-1920, M.A. Thesis, Halifax, Dalhousie University Department of History, 1974. 2. Thompson, J. H., The Prohibition Question in Manitoba 1892-1928, M.A. Thesis, Manitoba, University of Manitoba, 1969. END NOTES 1 Prohibition and Movements of Social Reform 1894 – 1920, Strople, M.J., 1974, p. 109. 2 Ibid., p. 109 3 Prohibition: The Lie of the Land, Cashman, Sean Dennis, The Free Press, 1981, p. 262. 4 Prohibition and Movements of Social Reform 1894 – 1920, Strople, M.J., 1974, p. 1 . 5 Ibid., p. 27 6 Prohibition: The Lie of the Land, Cashman, Sean Dennis, The Free Press, 1981, p. 31. 7 The Prohibition Question in Manitoba 1892 – 1928, Thompson, J.H.,