The Rise And Fall Of Cleopatra Vii

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The Rise And Fall Of Cleopatra Vii Essay, Research Paper Cleopatra VII (referred to hereafter as Cleopatra) was the last Ptolemic ruler of Egypt. She ruled from 51-30 BC. Her family ruled Egypt beginning in 305 BC, when Ptolemy I declared himself King of Egypt. The Ptolemy family was not of Egyptian decent, but of Macedonian decent. The capital city in which they ruled from was Alexandria.Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos “Auletes” was Cleopatra’s father. He started ruling Egypt in 80 BC. He was not well respected and thought of as weak. Cleopatra’s mother may be Cleopatra V Tryphaena, who either died or disappeared in 70 BC, right after Cleopatra’s birth in 69 BC. Cleopatra had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV, and one younger sister, Arsinoe IV. She also

had two younger brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV both of whom she married. Who individually end up either going against Cleopatra s parents or her for the ruling of Egypt.In 58 BC, Berenice IV (and possibly Cleopatra) took over Egypt, and forced Ptolemy XII “Auletes” to go to Rome. Berenice IV ruled the kingdom until her father got the throne back in 55 BC. Berenice IV was beheaded, and Cleopatra disappeared between 58 and 55 BC. Ptolemy XII “Auletes” then ruled until his death in 51 BC. His will named Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII as heirs to the throne. Some leaders in Rome were named as guardians of the two. In the will their father made it mandatory for the two to marry in order to rule. This ritual began when Ptolemy II married his sister Arsinoe II. Cleopatra and

Ptolemy XIII ruled jointly and did marry, though it was a marriage only in law. She was about 18 years and Ptolemy XII was 10 years old, when they were named Queen and King of Egypt in 51 BC. Cleopatra did most of the ruling, and left Ptolemy XIII out of it. Ptolemy XIII, being so young, did not know much about ruling. He served as a puppet for power-hungry advisers (in particular a minister named Pothinus) and in 48 BC kicked Cleopatra out of the palace. She got back by building her own army outside the city. Civil war was close. In Rome, there was also a civil war between Pompey the Great and Julius Caesar. Pompey had been an ally of the Egyptians and, in an attempt to gain help, he fled to Egypt. Pothinus knew that Caeser would win the Civil War. He told Ptolemy XIII that in

order to get Caeser s support they should kill Pompey. Pothinus beheaded Pompey and gave it to Caeser when he arrived. Caesar came looking for Pompey in Egypt. Caeser was asked to be a guest in the palace for his stay in Egypt. When he arrived Ptolemy XIII gave him Pompey s head hoping that Caeser would be grateful and give Ptolemy XIII his full support. Caesar did not like Ptolemy s actions by Pompey’s head being presented to him. Caesar had been friends with Pompey and did not like to have him treated so disrespectfully. Cleopatra knew it was important that she talk to Caesar and have him hear her side of the story. She was unable to get into the palace because of the dispute between her and her brother/husband and knew if she tried and was discovered, she would be killed. So

she wrapped herself in a rug and was smuggled in. Caesar was fascinated by Cleopatra and the two spent the night together. The next day, Ptolemy was called to a meeting and was shocked to find that Cleopatra was at his side. The war had switched hands now, it was between Ptolemy XIII with Cleopatra s younger sister, Arsinoe IV, on his side fighting against Caeser. In order to make peace, Caesar gave Cyprus back to Egypt, and Arsinoe IV and Ptolemy XIV were named rulers. Arsinoe was not happy with that, she wanted to be the Queen of Egypt. So she remained on good terms with Ptolemy XIII who was still against Caesar. Pothinus was killed. It is unsure if Caeser killed him because of what he did to Pompey or if he died in war. Ptolemy XIII was upset . Arsinoe IV was taken prisoner by