The Red Scare Essay Research Paper After — страница 2

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different radicals from each other (3, 128). One such action taken by the government prevented Wobblies who were not yet citizens from naturalization, even if they quit their organization. In 1917, the US government made a law which gave the Secretary of Labor the power to arrest or deport any alien promoting or teaching destruction of property or the overthrow of government by force(6, 1). These laws allowed the government to use deportation as a cure for the anti-government views of its enemies. After all the unfair legislation passed by the government, disaster and more chaos were inevitable. Attorney General, Mitchell Palmer used biased laws to rage a war against the Wobblies and the Socialists. One way that these people were targeted was by use of the Espionage Act of 1918

(3, 42). This act penalized anyone who interfered with the operation of the armed forces, was insubordinate, or expressed disloyalty to the forces. Because of the law’s vague language, the Justice Department convicted more than 1000 people (3, 44). Among those convicted were a large number of Socialists and Wobblies. The Espionage Act was not the only form of legislation to discriminate against anti-war groups. In October 1918, Congress passed the Alien Act, which gave the Secretary of Labor the power to deport ” any alien who, at any time after entering the United States, is found to have been at the time of entry, or to have become thereafter a member of any anarchist organization” (3, 45). The extremely broad language used in this bill and the way it was interpreted gave

Palmer the authority to conduct his raids and thousands of people were arrested and detained without actually having been charged. The Socialists and Wobblies anticipated what was to come and these organizations worked for the repealing of the legislation aimed against them. Many Socialists became figures due to their attempts to release their imprisoned comrades (2, 17). Another reason for the Red Scare was the strike held by mine workers (2, 21). They were thought to be making threatening moves against the Capitalist system through Socialist organizations. These strikes were part of a series of events, which took place in 1919 (2, 20). This strike, which occurred in February, consisted of 60,000 coal mine workers (2, 20). During September, steel workers also began to strike.

All of the blame was put upon the American Communists, although many communists tried to oppose this strike. Nationalist Americans called for a halt to these strikes which were taking place (4, 89). As a result of this panic, a series of bombings occurred. The Socialists were immediately assumed to be responsible of the bombings. Newspapers became involved by publicizing stories about the bombings (1, 68). Attorney General Palmer took advantage of the widespread panic of the public and media and asked Congress for fund more money to help avoid further danger. Congress agreed to grant more money. Congress not only supplied funds, but declared that all foreign radicals must be deported. The government had put into effect a plan to rid the country of unwanted foreign radicals, but a

problem remained as what to do with the radicals who were citizens of the United States (1, 70). In June of 1919, New York state officials raided the Rand School of Social Science in New York, and the headquarters of the Industrial Workers of the World and the Socialists (1, 70). These raids were a result of legislature action. The idea behind this committee was anit-radical, and the tactics of the committee spread nationwide very quickly. Even with the new legislations and laws in place, Attorney General Palmer complained that not enough was being done to deport aliens. Although Palmer was a target of the bombings it is possible that he held anti-liberal views because of presidential ambitions (5, 1). In the August of 1919, Palmer created an intelligence department to deal with

problems with anarchists. He appointed J. Edgar Hoover to lead this newly founded agency (5, 1). Hoover created files on each subversive organization. One of the first assignments of this agency was to raid The Union of Russian Workers in New York (5, 2). Palmer was not the only extreme anti-radical. Senator Kenneth McKellen of Tennessee proposed sending all native-born radicals to a special penal colony on the island of Guam (5, 2). Liberal journalists held very caustic opinions of the actions of Palmer and his comrades. Palmer didn’t care what the journalists said. He went on with the raids. On December 27, 250 deportees sailed for Russia from New York. On Friday, January 2, 1920, agents of the Justice department raided a Communist headquarters and began to arrest thousands