The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English — страница 7

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pity he should be so grave and so dull. The principal clause may be of the following type: I am sorry, glad, pleased, vexed, etc. e.g. I am sorry you should take such needless trouble. The Tenses of the Forms Expressing Unreality (Summary) As can be seen from the above description, not all the forms of unreality can express tense distinctions. Thus the Subjunctive Mood and the modal phrases should (for all persons) + infinitive and would (for all persons) + infinitive have no tense distinctions. They are used only in certain types of subordinate clauses and generally show that the action of that clause follows the action of the principal clause, i.e. they express time relatively. e.g. I suggest(ed) that he takes up the matter. Since these forms have no tense distinctions the

rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed here. Tense distinctions are expressed only by the forms of the Conditional Mood (which has two tenses – Present and Past) and also by the use of the forms of the Past Indefinite and the Past Perfect. The Present Conditional Mood and the form of the Past Indefinite (also the form were for all persons singular) serve to refer an action to the present or the future when they are used in complex sentences with a clause of condition (or a clause of concession introduced by even if or even though). e.g. If I had time I should go on a short holiday. The Past Conditional Mood and the form of the Past Perfect serve to refer an action to the past in the same kinds of clauses. e.g. If I had had time I should have gone on a short holiday.

The Present Conditional Mood is also used with reference to the present or future in simple sentences with implied condition while the Past Conditional refers an action to the past. e.g. It would not be possible to decide anything without him. It would not have been possible to decide anything without him. In all those cases the tenses are used absolutely, i.e. they refer an action directly to the present, the past or the future. The same is true of the modal verb were + infinitive which is used only in if-clauses and refers an action of that clause to the future. e.g. If everybody were to be brought up differently, would the world not change? But when all those forms, which in the above described cases express time relations absolutely are used in other subordinate clauses, they

become relative tenses, i.e. they express the time with regard to the action of the principal clause. The Present Conditional Mood and the form of the Past Indefinite indicate that the action of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause or follows it. e.g. They say it would be impossible to decide anything without him. The Past Conditional Mood and the form of the Past Perfect show that the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the principal clause. e.g. They say it would have been impossible to decide anything without him. It should be remembered that the tenses in sentences of unreal condition are also used relatively in reported speech. e.g. He says that if he had time he would go on a short holiday. As is seen from the examples, the

rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed with any of the above mentioned forms expressing unreality. It is different, however, when the forms can (may) + infinitive are used to express problematic actions. Can is found only in clauses of purpose, may – in clauses of purpose and-in object clauses after expressions of fear in the principal clause. e.g. On Sundays we always go outing so that the children can spend the day in the open air. The forms can (may) + infinitives are in the Indicative Mood here, so the rules of the sequence of tenses should be observed. The above forms express the time relatively – they show that the action of the subordinate clause follows that of the principal clause. e.g. On Sundays we always went outing so that the children could spend the

day in the open air. 3. The use of The Subjunctive Mood in the works of English and American authors The 3d chapter is my practical investigation of the problem of the use of different forms of the Subjunctive Mood by English and American writers. For this purpose I chose the following stories included into the textbook by Merkulova which we studied during our 3 year, there are: «A Marriage of Convenience», «The Luncheon», «The Verger» by S. Maugham, «Jerusalem the Golden» by M. Drabble, «One Pair of Hands» by M. Dickens, «Shopping for One» by A. Cassidy, «A Start in Life» by A. Brookner, «The Lord of the Rings» by J.R.R. Tolkien as well as our home reading material «Love story» by Erick Segal. All in all I have collected 62 examples on the use of the