The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English — страница 4

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vacillating between two extremes – 3 moods (indicative, subjunctive and imperative), put forward by many grammarians, and 16 moods, as proposed by M. Deutschbein. Between these extremes there are intermediate views, such as that of Prof. A. Smirnitsky, who proposed a system of 6 moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive I, subjunctive II, suppositional, and conditional), and who was followed in this respect by M. Ganshina and N. Vasilevskaya. If we look through the meaning of the mood forms, we obtain the following headings: Meaning Means of expression Inducement (order, request, prayer, and the like) Possibility (action thought of as conditionally possible, or as purpose of another action, etc.) Unreal condition Consequence of unreal condition come (!) (no ending, no

auxiliary, and usually without subject, 2nd person only) (he) come (no ending, no auxiliary) Should come (should for all persons) may come (?) came, had come (same as past or past perfect indicative), used in subordinate clauses should come (1st person) would come (2nd and 3rd person) We would thus get either four moods, or three moods, or two moods. The choice between these variants will remain arbitrary and is unlikely ever to be determined by means of any objective data. If, on the other hand, we start from the means of expressing moods we are likely to get something like this system: Meaning Means of expression Inducement Possibility Unreal condition Unlikely condition Consequence of unreal condition Wish or purpose come (!) (no ending, no auxiliary, and usually without

subject) (he) come (no ending in any persons, no auxiliary) came, had come Should come (for all persons) should come (1st person) would come (2nd and 3rd person) may come (?) In this way we should obtain different system, comprising six moods, with the following meanings: Inducement Possibility Unreal condition Unlikely condition Consequence of unreal condition Wish or purpose A similar problem concerns the groups «should + infinitive» and «would + infinitive». Two views are possible here. If we have decided to avoid homonymy as far as possible, we will say that a group of this type is basically a tense (the future-in-the-past), which under certain specified conditions may express an unreal action – the consequence of an unfulfilled condition. If we endorse one of the

views, that is, if we take the temporal and the modal groups «should (would) + infinitive» to be homonyms, the patterns themselves will not change. The change will affect the headings. We shall have to say, in that case, that the patterns serve to distinguish between two basically different forms sounding alike. Again, just as in the case of lived and knew, this will be a matter of interpreting facts, rather than of the facts as such. To sum up the whole discussion about categories of the verb found in conditional sentences, the simplest view, and the one to be preferred is that we have here forms of the indicative mood in a special use. Another view is that we have here forms of special moods, and that they are distinguished from each other according to the category of

correlation. 2. The main cases of the use of The Subjunctive Mood in English Simple sentences In simple sentences the synthetic forms of the Subjunctive Mood are more frequent than the analytical forms. In simple sentences the Subjunctive Mood is used: To express wish: e.g. Success attend you! To express wish the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary may is also used. e.g. May you live long and die happy! To express an unreal wish: e.g. If only he were free! In oaths and imprecations: e.g. Manners be hanged! In some expressions: e.g. Be it so! God forbid! The Subjunctive Mood in simple sentences is characteristic of literary style, except in oaths and imprecations, which belong to low colloquial style. Complex sentences The Subjunctive Mood is used in conditional

sentences to express an unreal condition (in the subordinate clause) and an unreal consequence (in the principal clause). In sentences of unreal condition referring to the present of future the past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used in the subordinate clause; with other verbs the same meaning is expressed by the Past Infinitive of the Indicative Mood. In the principal clause we find the analytical subjunctive consisting of the mood auxiliary should or would and the Indefinite Infinitive. Should is used with the first person singular and plural, would is used with the second and third person singular and plural. e.g. The world would be healthier if every chemist’s shop in England were demolished. An unreal condition referring to the future can also be expressed by the Past