The Pregnancy Life Stage Essay Research Paper

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The Pregnancy Life Stage Essay, Research Paper Running head: PREGNANCY LIFE STAGEPregnancy Life Stage 1 Pregnancy Life Stage SCI/160 University of Phoenix July 25, 2000 Melissa Dolewa Pregnancy Life Stage Does nutrition status affect fertility? Good overall nutrition, rather than eating any specific food, greatly improves your chances of conceiving a child. For women, nutrient deficiencies and low-calorie diets at one extreme, and obesity at the other, can disrupt ovulation. Poor nutrition can also have an impact on male fertility. In order to get pregnant, doctors recommend that both women and men eat healthy, exercise and keep a positive mental attitude to increase chances of fertilization. Eating healthy, exercise and keeping a positive mental attitude are equally

important during pregnancy and after pregnancy. According to www.familyinternet.com, ?carrying a baby for nine months and then providing it with breast milk afterward is a major nutritional stress on a woman?s body. Food intake increases only 15-20%, but requirements for specific nutrients such as folic acid, zinc, and certain B vitamins may increase by 30-100%.? In addition, less than optimal nutrition can result in low-birth weight babies with increased risk of heart disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes as adults. (www.childbirth-connections.com). Both over-eating and under-eating can adversely affect the qualities and quantities of breast milk, which is explained further under Dietary Requirements During Pregnancy. During pregnancy, nutrients are passed from mother to

fetus through the placenta, and after birth, through breast-milk. The main vitamins and nutrients needed by mother and fetus is explained in the chart below: Nutrient/VitaminAmount NeededBenefitSource ProteinNeed for pregnant women is increased by 10 to 15 grams daily (1 glass of milk contains 8 grams of protein).Forms structural basis for all new cells and tissues for both the mother and fetuswww.tdh.tx.us (Texas Department of Health) Carbohydrates50-100 g/dailyPrevents ketosis, which, during pregnancy, can cause brain damage to the fetus.www.tdh.tx.us Pregnancy Life Stage Nutrient/VitaminAmount NeededBenefitSource Folate400-800 micrograms dailyPrevents anemia during pregnancy, may prevent miscarriage, preserves the integrity of genetic material, and lowers risk of neural tube

defects like spina-bifudawww.familyinternet.com Calcium1000-1500 mg/dailyMilk production and growing boneswww.familyinternet.com Iron30 mg beginning 12th week of pregnancyBinds oxygen to hemoglobin and prevent iron-deficiency anemia?Nutrition During Pregnancy?, National Academy of Sciences Vitamin DAdequate sun exposure, or 10 mg/daily for complete vegetarians and 5 mg/daily for woman who don?t eat vitamin D-fortified foods (dairy products)Promotes fetal growth, bone formation, tooth enamel formation and the proper utilization of calciumwww.familyinternet.com Vitamin B-62-5 mg/day during 1st & 2nd trimester, not to exceed 20 mg/day in the last trimester; higher doses may shut off milk productionManufacture of hormones, hemoglobin, neurotransmitters, many enzymes, and amino

acids.www.familyinternet.com Vitamin E200 IUDecreases risk of premature babies and low-birth weight infants and may lower the risk of miscarriage.www.familyinternet.com Vitamin AFollow the RDA of 2700 IU dailyProvides baby with vitamin A reserves and sustains adequate breast-mil concentrations.www.familyinternet.com Zinc10-30 mg daily is sufficient and considered safe; excessive intake of zinc can lower HDL-cholesterol.Reduces risk of miscarriage, labor complications, neural tube defects and low-birth babieswww.familyinternet.com Food plays a major role in promoting a healthy life. However, during the pregnancy cycle, nutrition is of even greater importance because of the effects on both the mother and baby. Many people have said that a pregnant mother is eating for two, which in