The place of “Macbeth” among Shakespeare’s tragedies — страница 9
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evening after a day away from the castle, he is murdered. Macbeth pretends that he is expected at the banquet arranged for that evening, and his ghost, covered in blood, comes and sits in Macbeth’s own chair. Macbeth is over – come with the horror of the apparition, and the party breaks up. He is, nevertheless, to see Banquo once again. The witches show Macbeth eight – kings, with many more reflected in a mirror, and the ghost of Banquo following them. this signifies to Macbeth that although Banquo has been murdered by his orders, Fleance, Banquo’s son, has escaped, and is destined to be farther of a line of kings; although Macbeth has won the throne, it is foretold that his children will never follow him in a royal line. Macduff is nobleman who discovered the murder of Duncan. Commanded to call early on his king, he enters the king’s chamber and quickly returns with horror in his eyes and voice. Macbeth pretends not to understand him. It is Macduff who first expresses surprise at Macbeth admitting that he had himself murdered the grooms who were attending the king. «Wherefore did you so?» he asks, and, since he does not seem to be convinced by Macbeth’s answer, Lady Macbeth pretends to faint so that attention is drawn away from her husband. Macduff asks help for her. But his suspicions are aroused; he leaves for his own part of the country and then makes his way to England. His wife and children are left behind in Scotland, and Lady Macduff is unable to understand his flight. Rosse tries to persuade her that her husband has left for the good of the country, and implies that he is in England to raise forces to oppose the tyrant Macbeth Rosse says he is: Rosse: But for you husband, He is noble, wise, judicious, and best knows The fits o ‘th’ season I dare not speaks much further. (IV.II. 15 p) Росс: Ваш супруг. Умен и добр. Он лучше многих знает, Что делать в наше время. Ничего Я не прибавлю. (IV. 2.стр. 536) Росс: Биздан кўра, у билади нима қилишни. Ёвқур ақли асқатади шундай пайтларда. Бошқа бир гап айтолмайман. Замона оғир. (IV. 2. 100 б) But this is no comfort to his wife, who is killed with her children by order of Macbeth. In England Macduff has met Duncan’s son Malkolm, and a at first Malkolm wishes to test Macduff’s loyalty; he is afraid that Macbeth may have sent Macduff to trick him into telling his secret plans for an attack. Macduff, an honest and straight – forward person, is at first guit confused at Malkolm’s words. Since Malkolm makes himself out to be even more evil than Macbeth. But when all is explained, Rosse enters and announces a more bitter tragedy, the murder of Macduff’s family. He cannot believe that so purposeless a crime is possible: Macduff: He has no children. All my pretty ones? Did you say all? – O hell – kite! – All? What, all my pretty chickens, and their dam, At one fell swoop? (IV.III. 249–19) Макдуф: Но Макбет бездетен! Всех бедненьких моих? До одного? О Изверг, изверг! Всех моих хороших? Всех ты сказал? И женушку мою? Всех разом. (IV.III.стр. 546) Макдуф: Аммо Макбет, оласиз – да! – Битта қўймай – а? Бечорагиналаримнинг барчасиними? – О, одамхўр! – Ҳаммасими? Вой, ширинларим! Ёппасига? Хотининг ҳам сўйилди, дегин?! (С.А.) (IV. 3. 117 б) Макдуф: Гўдакларим барини – я? Битта қўймасдан! О, дўзахий калхат! Барча жўжаларимни Бир ҳамлада ҳалок этмиш онаси билан! (Ж.К.) At first he had been unable to express his sorrow in words: now he tells his determination to take revenge on Macbeth, and to do it quickly. The first Apparation called up by the witches had warned Macbeth of Macduff, confirming suspicions which Macbeth claims to have had already. Now the play leads to their final meeting. Macduff shows that the witches’ words concerning Macbeth’s safety are useless, since they «palter» «in a double sense». «None of woman born» seemed to mean «nobody at all»; but in another sense it means «no child to whom a woman has given natural birth». Macduff tells Macbeth that his mother did not «bear» him (in his second sense), and they fight until Macbeth is killed. Macduff leaves and returns after a moment with Macbeth’s head carried in triumph.