The New Kingdom Essay Research Paper Egypt — страница 2

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and artisans and assimilated their culture as Egypt?s own. Egypt expanded by bringing their conquered enemy into the Egyptian empire. Thutmose III established an intricate system of diplomacy, alliances, and treaties. Pharaohs that succeeded him often engaged in warfare with other nations. The Hittites and the Hurrians were two of the enemies that Egypt would have to become allies with. Thutmose III was also credited for making peace with the Hurrians. Two Hurrian kings married their daughters to the two Egyptian kings Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III, thereby insuring peace between the two nations. Hatshepsut was the queen of Egypt during the 18th dynasty. She ruled from ca. 1503 to 1480 B.C. ?In contrast to the warlike temper of her dynasty, she devoted herself to administration

and the encouragement of commerce. In the summer of 1493 B.C. , she sent a fleet of five ships with thirty rowers each from Kosseir, on the Red Sea, to the Land of Punt, near present-day Somalia. It was primarily a trading expedition, for Punt, or God?s land, produced myrrh, frankincense, and fragrant ointments that the Egyptians used for religious purposes and cosmetics.? She was the daughter of Thutmose I. She married Thutmose II. Hatshepsut built the temple at Deir Al- Bahri. Expansion continued under the reign of Amenophis II and Thutmose IV. Amenophis III was the next king and under his rule was built some of the greatest Pharaonic structures. The Temple of Luxor is one of his greatest tributes. Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV, 1364-1347 B.C.) ruled towards the end of the 18th

dynasty. He ruled for a short time but while he was ruler, he changed Egypt forever. He believed in one god, Ra, at this time this was unheard of. He had his god?s symbol replace that of all the other gods. Akhenaten’s religious ideas did not survive his death. His ideas were abandoned in part because of the economic collapse that ensued at the end of his reign. To restore the morale of the nation, Akhenaten’s successor, Tutankhamen, cleaned and repaired temples. New images were made, priests appointed, and endowments restored. Akhenaten’s new city was abandoned to the desert sands. This was done to appeased the gods. Tutankhamen ruled for 16 years. After his father?s death monotheism died out but it would take two kings after the young ruler for the beliefs to be

eradicated. The 19th dynasty experienced rulers such as Seti I and Ramses The Great. Just as Akhenaten lost territories, Seti I recaptured these territories. Seti I began the construction of a temple at Abydos and it was completed by his son, Ramses II also known as Ramses The Great. Ramses II was the co-ruler of Egypt during his father?s reign. He also constructed structures like the Ramesseum in Thebes and the sun temples of Abu Simbel. Merneptah was the next successor and he spent most of his rule forcing back invaders from Libya and the Mediterranean. The Last king of the 19th dynasty was Seti II. He defended the Egyptian empire from Libya and the Mediterranean foes also. The Last dynasty of the New Kingdom was the 20th Dynasty. Ramses III was also occupied with defending the

Egyptian empire from invasion. ?His successors, who were all named Ramses, presided over the decline of their empire until Ramses XI withdrew from active control over his kingdom, delegating authority over Upper Egypt to his High Priest Amun Herihor and Lower Egypt to his minister Smendes. They were to be the last rulers of the New Kingdom.? This was not the end of the Egyptians but it was to lead to the demise of the Egyptian empire. Through their Art and sculptures they will always be remembered . Their fantastic tombs and other architecture will always be looked upon as a wonder in itself. Living in the ancient times of the Egyptians and others like them seems to have been very war-like. To have survived back then you would have to have been very powerful and resourceful. I

will always be fascinated with the accomplishments of this ancient civilization. I just named some of their achievements and kings. How could an empire this powerful and civilized befall such a great demise as they did. That question would lead us into Third intermediate period, which would take much more time to write about. But you can see that the Egyptians were a glorious people. Deborah Howard, Exploring Ancient World Cultures, Essays on Ancient Egypt, The Egyptian Culture Reflected in Worship[cited 1996] ?Egypt: A Country Study? in Federal Research Division: from Library of Congress , Egypt, Art and Architecture in the New Kingdom ed. Helen Chapin Metz [database online] [cited December 1996] http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/egtoc.html ?Life in Ancient Egypt ? Oriental Institute