The Nature Transmission Prevention And Treatment Of — страница 2

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syndrome or LAS. This condition can bring on mild symptoms of fever and weight loss. Other signs of full-blown AIDS include oral lesions such as thrush and hairy leukoplakia. People may also develop kidney disorders and gastrointestinal diseases like severe diarrhea that can cause weight loss. Since AIDS is such a serious incurable disease, it is important to know how the disease is transmitted. One method of transmission is via bodily fluids by having sex. This includes all forms of sex: vaginal sex, anal sex, and oral sex. The transmission also occurs in many other sexual activities. The human immunodeficiency virus can be transmitted through vaginal secretions in women to men by way of the bloodstream. In the same way, men can pass HIV to women in their semen. Men can also

pass it to other men by way of bodily fluids if the men are bisexual or homosexual The more sexual partners one has, the greater the risk of contracting HIV. “There is a saying, in terms of AIDS, that when you sleep with someone, you are in effect sleeping with all their partners over the past five years” (Bevan 35). Another way that one can get HIV is by sharing hypodermic drug needles. “Each time a person uses a needle and syringe, a tiny trace of blood is left inside” (Bevan 10). The blood that is left inside of this needle could contain HIV. When the HIV infected needle or syringe is inserted into one?s body, the virus is able to travel into that person?s bloodstream, thereby transmitting HIV. Even if the needle appears to be clean, it can still contain HIV infected

blood. “A drop of blood too small to be noticed can contain thousands of viruses” (Bevan 11). Drug users have enough problems to worry about without having to worry about getting AIDS. However, many drug users continue to share their needles because of excuses, desperation, and because sharing needles has become a ritual to develop closeness. Some people believe that if they inject the needle into the right place and don?t hit a vein that they will be safe. It doesn?t matter where the needle is injected. As long as the needle is contaminated with HIV, there is a possibility of catching AIDS. Other drug users are so addicted and desperate that they would risk anything - even their lives to get high. “For some addicts, the chance of catching AIDS seems less important than

missing the next fix” (Bevan 15). Finally, some users share needles in order to feel accepted into the group. People who use drugs are often looking for something to belong to, and they will do anything to feel like they are part of a group. They feel that they need to share needles in order to experience a special bond between themselves and others. It has become a ritual. However, no matter what the reason is that one has to share drug needles, there is never a good one. It is also possible for someone to become infected with AIDS through a blood transfusion. Since a transfusion involves placing foreign blood directly into the recipient?s blood stream, the necessary condition for transmission is present, and that condition is the direct contact of potentially infected fluid

with susceptible cells in the recipient. This is a method of AIDS transmission that the patient can do little about. Hemophiliacs who received blood transfusions before 1985 are the ones most at risk in this category. Today, there is only a small possibility of someone getting HIV through a blood transfusion. This is because in June of 1985, hospitals began screening blood to see if it was HIV infected (Flynn 64). Presently, there is only a small chance that the tests will not notice the virus in the blood. “It is estimated that undetected HIV is present in fewer than one in four hundred fifty thousand to six hundred thousand units of blood” (Microsoft Corporation 7). Technicians also pasteurize the blood to assure elimination of HIV. Another way for AIDS to be transmitted is

from an infected mother to her baby, either before or during childbirth, or through breast-feeding. The blood supplies of the baby and the mother are closely linked during pregnancy. Even though the mother?s and the child?s bloodstream are separated by the placenta, preventing the exchange of cells, the exchange of nutrients, blood, and small particles like viruses are still exchanged. HIV infection during pregnancy mainly occurs during the third trimester because of small tears which sometimes occur in the placenta. “Current statistics indicate that there is about a 50% chance that an infected mother will produce an infected infant” (Conner 149). Most infected children die before the age of five years (Conner 151). “Even uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers