The Move From Aristocracy To Bureaucracy — страница 4

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Philip IV?s hundred councillors were university professors.? Most were from northern Spanish families who had been ennobled within three generations.?? Philip IV?s council of Castile was entirely run by letrados whilst the Audencias (Courts of Appeal) were also effectively run by the letrados. Due to the improvement in the education of the judges and magistrates, there was no real control of the lawyers by the monarchy, which meant that, in Olivares? words justice fell into ?total abandon?, as the justices went unmonitored.? As such, hereditary posts developed and a venal culture developed.? Carlos II?s reign (1665) saw a commentator observe that ?there are those who occupy their offices as though they bought them? and that dignities were made into ?inheritances or sales?.? The

Castilian crown started to sell offices formally and raised 90 million ducats between 1619 and 1640.? Important positions for the localities became semi-hereditary posts and cities were almost self-governing by the 1700s.? Although Charles V halted further ennoblements through offices, this period saw the growth of the lower aristocracy, replacing the grandees as the real power-base in Spain. ??????????? In England, a similar pattern occurs, but it is not due to the growth of lay education so much as the faction of the English aristocracy.? Within two generations of the end of the War of the Roses, no Tudor was likely to allow the build up of any more dynastic rivals, especially given their own inability to get heirs.? Henry VIII?s reliance on mercernaries over domestic troops

was another aspect of his emasculation of the nobility.? Equally, the need to exclude the monasteries from the royal administration encouraged the growth of the lower noble bureaucracy.? Although there was no Eltonian ?New Monarchy? in this time, it is fair to say that we do see an improved recognition for educated ordinary men in the English court.? Wolsey was the son of an Ipswich butcher, and according to Elton, Cromwell was a ?Putney wide-boy.???? Although the era brings a new opportunity for the advancements of ordinary people at the court, this was the result of the development from chamber finance to exchequer economics and the subsequent movement from arrogance about the rights of noble to a marginally more egalitarian arrogance about the rights of the educated man.

??????????? In France and Spain, we see the growth of the lower nobility and upper gentry into a class of administrators that in many cases bought their way into the state structure, and then passed their position on, so creating not a bureaucracy, but a new elite.? The old oligarchy that relied on the financial and military power of nobles and used the church?s resources, especially after Martin V?s drive for ecclesiastical administrative power following the schism to restore papal prestige, was replaced by an oligarchy of lay clerks drawn from the bloated ?educated? class. ??????????? This is a pattern repeated in other western states.? In Germany, the rights and privileges of the nobility were well recorded.? The Imperial Knights (Ritterschaft) formed leagues and contested

their position with their local dukes and electors constantly throughout the period.? Their protests were in reference to the growth of a new class that the Spanish and French would have recognised.? The educated lower castes being churned out by the masses of newly formed universities (there were just five universities in 1400, there were 18 by 1520) were taking posts in local governments previously held by men of their calibre.? In ?The Order of Knights? by v. Guenzberg, the author claims that ?any Tom, Dick and Harry, any drunks, clerks and financiers? were running the Empire.? Their protests continued until 1522-3 when the Knight?s War brought the elector of Triers in to crush them.? Their defeat did not diminish their importance and their Imperial rights remained intact

until the nineteenth century, but the trend of recruiting educated men over noblemen continued. ??????????? Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, there is a very different story.? In Russia, the lack of trained personnel kept the nobility, with their military and economic power, firmly in control.? Ivan IV?s government has been criticised for the weakness of the throne, since the Duma was so aristocratic and so powerful.? The provision of ambassadors, generals and governors, as well as policies, administrative structure and day to day government was left in the hands of the Duma, and the Duma?s size reflected the size of the boyar class.? Vasili III left a group of boyars the regency after his death.? Only 28 of the 62 families represented in the pre-1645 council were left in the Duma in