The Monroe Doctrine Essay Research Paper The — страница 2

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Shortly after the occupation, Britain and Spain withdrew from the conflict. France, on the other hand, did not withdraw but overthrew the Mexican government and established an empire. During this period, the United States had the Civil War on its hands and was not able to enforce the Doctrine. Towards the end of the Civil War, the United States was able to intervene and to cause the French to withdraw from Mexico. As shown here, France broke the Monroe doctrine by replacing the government of Mexico. After all of this France had to accept the Doctrine and ended up with very little accomplished because it had to withdraw from Mexico. This managed to keep a major European Power from gaining a strong foothold in the Americas and just south of the United States’ borders. It also

marked the first time the United States would intervene in the political affairs of another country by invoking the Monroe Doctrine. The next event produced by the Monroe Doctrine was the Spanish American War in 1898. This war was sparked by the island of Cuba, one of the few remaining Spanish colonies in the Americas. Cuba wanted independence from Spain and declared their independence in 1895. This angered Spain who did not want to lose this colony and was willing to keep it by force if necessary. In the end the United States felt compelled to protect Cuba’s wish for independence and this led to the Spanish American War. The war was short and in the end Cuba got its independence and the United States got Puerto Rico, Guam , and the Philippines. It appears that Spain did not

acknowledge the Monroe Doctrine and it led them into war, but the reality was that the United States also wanted to diminish Spain’s dominance in the Americas and open up new markets for American products. 4 At the end of the war, the United States achieved many things. It defended the independence of Cuba, achieved a peace treaty with Spain, and gained various territories. None of this would have happened unless the United States enforced the Monroe Doctrine. This demonstrates the insidious use of the Monroe Doctrine and the resulting gain of territories by the United States. Another occurrence in which the Monroe Doctrine was used by the United States to expand its influence was during the Venezuelan debt controversy. 5 This controversy was brought up when the Venezuelan

government tried to repudiate its debts to investors from Great Britain, Germany, and Italy. They tried diplomacy but when that failed, the European Countries threatened to use armed force to get their money. At this point the United States stepped in and mediated a peaceful settlement. Along with this, during an address to Congress, Theodore Roosevelt stated in 1904, in the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, the right of the United States to intervene in the internal affairs of Western Hemisphere nations to prevent “chronic wrongdoing.” 6 By doing this he expanded the Monroe Doctrine ’s mandate and established the United States as an international police force. It meant that the United States had the right to intervene on any Latin American affairs if it believed

that there was some wrong being done. This also explicitly gave the United States the right to intervene, while before it was assumed. The international police power was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine, it mandated that the United States had the right to police all of Latin America. Through this event the United States gained more power and authority over the Americas. This new addition to the concept of the Monroe Doctrine also decreased the power of the big European countries. The aforementioned police power also lead the United States in sending troops to Nicaragua. This event began in 1912 when a revolution started in Nicaragua. When the United States saw what was happening, it sent twenty-six hundred troops to try to put an end to it. Once the revolution was stopped, the

United States left over one hundred troops to guard the territory they controlled. This occupation lasted until 1933. Ironically, this whole sequence of events was against the intention of the Monroe Doctrine. Senator Borah in response to this event said that the Monroe Doctrine “does not give us the right … to invade territory, to tear down governments and set up others.” 7 Senator Borah was right. The United States did not have the right to intervene with Nicaragua’s revolution. It went against the original intent of Monroe Doctrine. There might have been some “chronic wrongdoing” there, so it might have been justifiable for the invasion. Once the problem was resolved, there was no justification for the leaving of troops there. This was even highly contradictory to