The Mind Music And Behavior Essay Research — страница 3

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interfered with the attention span of the students. These last two studies seem to refute the findings of the other research; but in a sense, all the studies correlate a modification of behavior caused by the presence of music. The next reasonable step is to ask how this modification of behavior or affect of music on the mind can be harnessed. One major field that may benefit from music’s affect on the mind is education. As a matter of fact, it has been shown that by exposing students in a classroom to music, the musical exposure enhances class achievement. A research performed at Glassboro State College indicated that when music was played in a certain psychology class for twenty minutes each day, the music “stimulated the human alpha and beta brain waves,” resulting in

the attainment of “significantly higher mean scores on examinations than those who were not exposed to the music.” In addition, music can also be used to aid in the education of mentally handicapped students. In a school district in Prescott, Arizona, music was added to the academic environment of special education students. This resulted in an increase in performance, especially in the area of mathematics. Thus, it has been established that there is a link between music and the mind or human behavior. There still, however, remains a great deal of research that needs to be done in order for us to comprehend the why and how. This is a substantial challenge, considering that not much is know about the mysteries of the brain itself, let alone how it is affected by auditory

impulse. It should also be noted that although the studies presented show certain effects of music, in each study there are exceptions. Some people show no signs of altered behavior or any other effects of music. There are even some studies where a majority of the subjects show no known measurable effects of music. Nonetheless there is a great potential for this topic of the music and the mind. If we understand how human beings are effected by music, we can alter how human beings learn and behave, as simply as by turning on the radio. References Balch, William R., Kelley Bowman, and Lauri A. Mohler. (1992). “Music-dependent Memory in Immediate and Delayed Word Recall.” Memory and Cognition, 20, pp. 21- 28. Becker, Nancy, Catherine Chambliss, Cathy Marsh, and Roberta

Monetmayor. (1995). “Effects of Mellow and Frenetic Music and Stimulating and Relaxing Scents on Walking by Seniors.” Perceptual Motor Skills, 80, pp. 411-415. Blood, Deborah J., and Stephen J. Ferriss. (1993). “Effects of Background Music on Anxiety, Satisfaction with Communication, and Productivity.” Psychological Reports, 72, pp. 171-177. McLaughlin, T. F., and J. L. Helm. (1993). “Use of Contingent Music to Increase Academic Performance of Middle-School Students.” Psychological Reports, 72, p. 658. Ogata, Shigeki. (1995). “Human EEG Responses to Classical Music and Simulated White Noise: Effects of a Musical Loudness Component on Consciousness.” Perceptual Motor Skills, 80, pp. 779-790. Perrewe, Pamela L., and Richard W. Mizerski. (1987). “Effect of Music on

Perceptions of Task Characteristics.” Perceptual Motor Skills, 65, pp. 165-166. Russel, P. A. (1987). “Memory for Music: A Study of Musical and Listener Factors.” The British Journal of Psychology, 78, pp. 335-347. Schreiber, Elliott H. (1988). “Influence of Music on College Students’ Achievement.” Perceptual Motor Skills, 66, p. 338. Smith, S. M. (1985). “Background Music and Context Dependent Memory.” American Journal of Psychology, 6, pp. 591-603 Sogin, David W. (1988). “Effects of Three Different Musical Styles of Background Music on Coding by College-Age Students.” Perceptual Motor Skills, 67, pp. 275- 280. Vanderark, Sherman D., and Daniel Ely. (1993). “Cortisol, Biochemical, and Galvanic Skin Responses to Music Stimuli of Different Preference Values

by College Students in Biology and Music.” Perceptual Motor Skills, 77, pp. 227-234. Wallace, Wanda T. (1994). “Memory for Music: Effect of Melody on Recall of Text.” Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20, pp. 1471-1485. Yalch, Richard F. (1991). “Memory in a Jingle Jungle: Music as a Mnemonic Device in Communicating Advertising Slogans.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, pp. 268-275. Microsoft Bookshelf 1995. CD-ROM. United States: Columbia University Press, 1995 Microsoft Encarta 1995. CD-ROM. United States: Columbia University Press, 1995