The Mexican War Essay Research Paper Of — страница 2

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over lava beds and rough land to the south of Lake Chalco that Santa Anna had left relatively unprotected. The first heavy fighting occurred on August 19-20 at CONTRERAS, outside Mexico City, where Mexican losses were estimated at 700 and American casualties at 60. Santa Anna fell back about 5 mi to Churubusco, where he took up a defensive position in a fortified convent. Advancing under extremely heavy fire on August 20, Scott’s men finally forced the convent’s surrender. Although Santa Anna and much of his command escaped. Mexican losses were estimated at more than 4,000 killed and wounded and more than 2,500 prisoners; by contrast, American losses were slightly more than 1,000 The war was over. In just over five months, Winfield Scott had done what many had considered

impossible. Santa Anna resigned the Mexican presidency. Forced to resign his command, he fled the country. The new acting president, Pedro Maria Anaya, began negotiations with the Americans. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, was signed on Feb. 2, 1848, putting an end to the war. The terms of the treaty called for Mexico to cede some 529,017 square miles its territory to the U.S., in exchange for $15 million, and to agree to recognize the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas. As a result, the U.S. nearly doubled in size. The present-day states of California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado all occupy territory that was won by the soldiers who fought in the Mexican War. SOME INTERESTING FACTS One of the most significant consequences of the Mexican

War was a revival of the old controversy over whether or not to allow slavery in the new territories. This, in turn, led to the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, and eventually, the abolition of slavery altogether. The War with Mexico is notable for a number of “firsts.” Not only was it the United States’ first foreign war but it was also the first war anywhere to be photographed. Additionally, it was the first war in which steamboats and the telegraph were used and in which newspaper correspondents regularly reported from the seat of war. It was also the first war in which graduates of West Point played a major role. Among these were some junior officers who would later command whole armies in the Civil War: Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson,

Braxton Bragg, and William T. Sherman - to name but a few. Contrary to popular belief, the War with Mexico was not exclusively a Texan war (although Texas supplied more than 8,000 of the approximately 75,000 volunteers who served). Regiments were raised in nearly every state, with Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, and Tennessee supplying the most (apart from Texas). Because its citizens were so enthusiastic, Tennessee became known as the “Volunteer State” during the Mexican War. Not all the soldiers were native-born. Large numbers of recently-arrived Irish and German immigrants enlisted in both the regular U.S. Army and state volunteer organizations. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ending the Mexican War, was signed on February 2, 1848, by Nicholas P. Trist for the United

States and by a special commission representing the collapsed government of Mexico. Trist disregarded a recall to Washington, and negotiated the treaty in violation of most of his instructions. The U.S. Senate reluctantly approved the treaty. Under the treaty, Mexico ceded to the United States Upper California and New Mexico (including Arizona) and recognized U.S. claims over Texas, with the Rio Grande as its southern boundary. The United States in turn paid Mexico $15,000,000, assumed the claims of American citizens against Mexico, recognized prior land grants in the Southwest, and offered citizenship to any Mexicans residing in the area.