The Italian Wars Essay Research Paper The

  • Просмотров 283
  • Скачиваний 5
  • Размер файла 17

The Italian Wars Essay, Research Paper The Italian Wars 1494-1559: - Introduction: The key issues over which the Italian Wars were fought were primarily financial incentives for Charles VIII of France. He declared that he intended to use Naples as a base to drive the Ottomans out of Europe and liberate Constantinople. In actual truth his main motivation was self-glory and the mouth-watering prospect of acquiring some exquisite prizes of war. On the way he would acquire rich cities and portable pieces of art. It seems that this invasion had been planned for two years prior since Charles had already bought off potential rivals like Henry VII of England, Ferdinand and Macsimilion. He had also enlisted the support of Genoa and Milan, both within Italy. The regent of Milan,

Ludovico Sforza, needed allies and his invitation in 1594 seemed to Charles? plans perfectly. He accepted and the Italian wars began. Also, the Cardinal of Genoa resented the current Pope, Alexander VI. He invited Charles to come in, depose him and spark off the eagerly awaited church reform. Events 1494-1516: - There was a mixed reaction to the arrival of Charles in Italy. Florence revolted against its leader, Piero de Medici. The Popes army deserted him. In Naples the king died and rather than unite against his son the populous decided to capitulate. There was however some reaction against Charles? activities. Ferdinand of Aragon decreed that since Naples was subject to the papacy, that the Popes honour had been attacked. He formed the League of Venice. His main intentions were

to expel Charles and become the ruler of a united Naples, Sicily and Aragon. Charles began to withdraw to France and although he won a battle at Fornovo, his outnumbered garrisons couldn?t retain Naples. By 1498 the situation in Italy was one of chaos and turmoil. Charles died in 1498, which meant that there wasn?t going to be a re-invasion. Popular uprisings in Milan and Florence saw the Medicis and the Sforzas overthrown. Civil war was raging on between Pisa and Florence and the accession of Louis VIII as French King meant that the prospects for peace did not look too good. Louis had inherited Naples, but his main objective was Milan, which he invaded in 1499. He settled for the Western half and gave the Eastern half to Venice. He then headed southward to Naples, which he had

agreed to jointly rule with Ferdinand. Although this meant that Louis couldn?t solely rule Italy he was in bad need of allies so as to not get driven back as his predecessor Charles VIII had done. In 1503, the treaty of Blois gave Louis the right to Naples and the Pope?s illegitimate son, Cesare Borgia, gained Perugia, Urbino and Pesaro. Borgia subsequently died in 1508 and Italy remained in peace for the following 4 years, although beneath the surface the various rulers were all plotting away for the next round of battles. Pope Julius II came to power in 1503 after the death of Alexander. He acted in a ?Iago? (Othello) role, by encouraging various rulers to invade Italy so that he may gain control of Venetian lands. In 1508 the league of Cambrai was formed that promised

Maximillian, Padua and Verona, Ferdinand, who was recognised as king of Naples and Louis who was offered Eastern Milan. Despite a victory by Louis?s infantry at Ravenna in 1512, he lost his hold on Milan, Venice and Navarre, by being defeated the following year. Peace looked a reasonable possibility in 1514 as Julius II had died and was replaced by the less ?ambitious? Leo X. The Sforzas and Medicis had retuned to their traditional lands of Milan and Florence. The idea of peace soon evaporated when Louis died in 1515. His successor Francis I, invaded Milan with 30,000 men, and upon an emphatic victory the only person capable of raising troops, was the Emperor, aided by English money. By 1516 peace was signed at Noyon. France controlled Milan and Genoa. Venice regained all the