The Invention Of Radar Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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Young determined that the cycling coincided with the passage of ships on the river. Because Taylor had received shipboard training as an officer in the US Navy, he saw an application for his scientific discovery in the detection of naval intruders at harbor entrances, or the detection of enemy ships between friendly vessels at sea. Taylor proposed using radar for these purposes to the Navy Bureau of Engineering on September 27, 1922. Detecting moving objects by observing signal fluctuations became known as the “beat” method of radio detection and resulted from Taylor’s knowledge and experience. Throughout Taylor’s term of service at the Naval Research Laboratory, he continued to use his technical expertise combined with his knack for invention to ensure funding and

research to develop more effective, higher frequency radar systems. He was the chief persuader in convincing notable companies such as the Westinghouse Company, RCA, General Electric and Bell Telephone Laboratories to produce higher frequency vacuum tubes as well as transmitters and receivers desperately needed in the World War II effort in the United States. If Taylor were not present to bridge the gap between theory and manufacturing, radar technology would not have gained the prominence that it came to bear. Henry Tizard was born in Great Britain in 1885 to a father who was a naval officer, and who raised Tizard to have the unquestioning patriotism of a military man. He spent his early childhood in preparation for service in the Royal Navy, but when a common housefly flew into

his eye in a freak accident, the resulting partial blindness disqualified him from military service. Although the doctors assured his parents that the blindness was only temporary, Tizard turned to competition for, and subsequently won, a scholarship to Westminster College. Here he began the first in a series of leaps across the chasms of expectation. Because Tizard had such an interest and ability in science and mathematics, his time at Westminster helped to round out his education through exposure to literature and architecture. The curriculum “Opened his eyes to the splendours of architecture and the continuity of history. For Tizard, already directed towards a career in which science was obviously to play at least some part, it provided a counter-weight. It kept him on an

even keel and helped to save him from the aesthetic and moral illiteracy into which the scientist can so easily slide.” Tizard did so well at Westminster that he went to Oxford in 1904 to study and tutor mathematics and chemistry. After graduating he went to the University of Berlin to be a graduate student in what was then the Mecca of science and engineering. In 1909 he returned to Britain and began work in chemical research. In 1914 Tizard was commissioned in the Royal Artillery and soon became involved in increasing the accuracy of bombs dropped from airplanes. In his attempt to verify his calculations of a falling object, Tizard requested to learn to fly. The authorities at the War Office begrudgingly gave him permission, and he promptly proved to them the value of a

flying scientist when his bombsight went into production. Tizard’s work in aviation expanded to include performance testing and fuel efficiency tests that became industry standards. Tizard was a pioneer in the field of aviation performance standards, a position afforded him by his status as the first flying scientist. When the war ended Tizard went back to chemical research at Oxford and began honing the skills that would secure his place in history. Through his rise in the faculty at Oxford, Tizard came more and more to have administrative dealings with all classes of people. His ability to size up a situation and immediately evaluate the difficulties to come, as well as his respectful dealings with others soon earned him the respect of supervisors and subordinates alike. A

friend at the Board of Education recommended Tizard for the position of Director of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, where he was to oversee the use of physics, chemistry, engineering and radio as national defense resources. Through his service in this capacity Tizard perfected his political skills. It was a position practically made for him because it required a detailed knowledge of technical matters, a civilian status and military experience. This position laid the ground work enabling Tizard to bridge the gap between technical specialists and political representatives. The culmination of Tizard’s participation in pre- World War II events occurred when a political contact asked him to Chair the Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Defense in