The Impact Of The Use Of A — страница 2

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director has given his audience a clue that the this woman will come to dominate the man. Techniques such as these are part of a cinematic language that has developed throughout the Twentieth Century. The most important need for framing is to guide the viewers attention throughout a shot. The size and shape of a frame concentrates the attention of the viewer to various points of interest, a face or an object. Attention can also be brought to certain portions of the screen by manipulating focus. Orson Welles’ “Citizen Kane” is filmed entirely in “deep focus”, everything on the screen is always in sharp focus. It has been argued that this technique frees the viewer to view the film as they want. I other words the audience is not being told what to look at. Other film

makers shift attention from one part of the screen o another by use of “focus pulls”. This technique changes the focal point of a shot from one object to another without a cut. This effect can give added meaning to a scene which words alone can not achieve. For instance if focus was pulled from a face to a knife, the audience will infer that the person, whose face they have just seen, will use the knife. Thus the audience has been led to an inference that does not rely on words at all. How a shot is constructed and framed can also support the meaning of dialogue. The relationship that each shot has to each other helps to give the dialogue coherence and to further the narrative of a film. For instance when two characters are conversing it would be illogical to show only the

face of one character. It is to keep the narrative of a film coherent that rules such as the 180 degree rule have evolved. The 180 degree rule states that the action of a film takes place along a centre line, or an axis of action. This rule keeps the camera on one side of the line, and ensures that other shots (for instance close ups on a face) are taken from the same side of the imaginary line. Thus screen direction is kept constant in the whole scene. The 180 degree rule has become part of the unique language of cinema, a visual language that helps an audience to view a film coherently. It ensures that portions of space tally from shot to shot and thus the audience is not disoriented. When cutting between tow characters who are talking to one another adherence to the 180 degree

rule and making sure that eyelines match means the audience understands the characters location, even when they are not in the same frame. As cinema has matured, cameras have grown ever more mobile and camera movement has become an important way of enhancing the meaning of a scene. Slow camera movement such as the opening shot of “A Clockwork Orange” can create an atmosphere of suspense. A Clockwork Orange opens with an extremely slow zoom out which centres on the face of the main character, Alex, frames by his hoodlum friends. The slow, almost stilted, movement leads the audience to feel unsettled and makes Alex’s group stand out as anything but a traditional group of friends. Camera movement can also be used to disorientate the audience. An example of this is seen in

Brain De Palma’s “Carlito’s Way”. When Carlito is shot and injured a handheld camera is used to follow the prone character up a flight of stairs. The camera was passed from had to had and the result is a spinning image sometimes looking up, and occasionally looking down at the stairs. This supports the narrative of the film since it adds to the confusion of the moment and allows the audience to feel the same confusion that Carlito must be feeling at this point. An effect like this would be impossible to achieve through dialogue alone. Camera can also enhance script via the use of visual themes and images. Often an audience may not be aware of the themes which run through a film yet these themes aid understanding of a piece and can act as triggers to remind us of earlier

events. In Roman Polanski’s “Chinatown”, for instance the theme of water and aridity is constantly returned to. Spit bubbling on a hot sidewalk or water running in the background. Colour is also useful in creating themes which enhance meaning. Psychologically different colour’s suggest different emotions and film makers play with this knowledge. The cinematographer Vittonio Storarro has constantly toyed with colour and graphic editing in his career. Storarro was Cinematographer on Bernardo Bertoluce’s film The Last Emperor, the use of colour is particularly fascinating since the story is told largely in flashback. Throughout the film it is not dialogue, but colour which triggers flashback. Different colours seem to bring back different memories. For instance one