The History Of Radio Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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having people on the air to play music or to sing. In 1922, AT&T was approached by a developer who wanted to build Hawthorne Estates. His proposal was to pay AT&T money to talk about the project and to provide it with a certain amount of hype; the advertisement was born. In order to get an audience, programs were developed to keep up with the ever-increasing advertisements. By 1924, AT&T and the Radio Groups had clusters of stations connected together by phone lines. The concept of the network and affiliates was about to be born. General Electric and Westinghouse wanted in on the deal and in 1926, AT&T agreed to sell their station for one million dollars. Later that year, AT&T (red) and G.E/Westinghouse (blue) banded together to form the National Broadcast

Company (NBC). A year later in 1927, a music promoter named Arthur Judson, found that he could not do business with NBC and so he formed his own 12 station network known as the Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System. CPBS later merged with a record company to form Columbia Broadcasting Systems (CBS). During that same time, another network, known as the Mutual Broadcasting System came into being. This network was different from the others because instead of owning it?s affiliates, the affiliates owned the network. Most of the programs run on the MBS were produced by affiliates. The networks had four primary functions. They were: to provide programming to their affiliates, arrange relays or feeds, sell time to advertisers, and to earn a profit for the shareholders. Some of the

networks offered programs to affiliates at no charge but in return wanted option time. Option time was a guaranty of a minimum amount of time that sponsored programs would run. This practice led to an FCC investigation which culminated with the Supreme Court ruling that networks could not own talent agencies, affiliates could give the network no more than three hours of option time during any parts of the major broadcast day, and that NBC, which had split into a red and a blue division, must sell one, thereby eliminating the threat of a monopoly. NBC blue became the American Broadcast Company in 1942. In the 1940?s, companies such as Ever Ready and B.F. Goodrich were sponsoring their own types of shows and the networks (who often produced the shows with live audiences in their

New York studios) would send the programs out via relays to the affiliates. There were variety shows hosted by folks like Jack Benny, and there were anthologies, and soap opera?s (aptly named because they were sponsored by soap companies. There were also detective shows, children?s shows, and Westerns. Radio was becoming America?s number one source of entertainment and news. By the beginning of the 1950?s, the networks began taking their money out of radio and investing it in television. Radio would have to change. In the 1960?s, it did. In the 1960?s we developed the technology to contain the FM signal. This was a much clearer signal and stations slowly began to migrate to FM. FM had been patented in 1933 by its inventor, Edwin Armstrong. It had not been used for anything more

than simulcasting until the 1960?s. In the early 60?s the AM band was becoming saturated and the economics of the radio industry was calling for more stations. The FCC had also passed a ruling saying that a company that owned both an AM and an FM station in the same market could not broadcast the same program on both stations simultaneously. FM station owners began to look for a programming format that would distinguish FM from AM. FM had a higher fidelity and therefore found its match with music. Music was gathering more of an audience and in turn the stations began receiving more ad dollars. Programming in today?s market seems to be geared much more to the FM band. There are enough stations so that virtually all kinds of music have found a home on radio. Talk has also found a

home on the radio. Most talk shows (political) can be found on the AM band along with some oldies stations and the occasional alternative (foreign, Russian symphony, etc.) stations. I think that the role of radio in today?s society isn?t nearly as great as it once was. It is still used as a form of communication, but for the most part, I believe it has become more of a form of entertainment. I think that deregulation of radio is a good thing. The government has said that the airwaves belong to the public and I believe it should be the public who decides what they want and what they don?t. The only problem that arises from the airwaves being owned by the public is that in reality, it?s not the waves that matter, it?s the corporations who own the stations that have access to the