The history of Old English and its development — страница 9

  • Просмотров 6171
  • Скачиваний 324
  • Размер файла 434
    Кб

Adjective "red" is actually translated from Japanese as "to be red", and the sentence Bara-wa utsukusii will mean "the rose is beautiful", while bara is "a rose", -wa is the nominative marker, and utsukusii is "to be beautiful". So no verb here, and the adjective is a predicate. This structure is typical for many Altaic languages, and probably was normal for Proto-Nostratic as well. The Proto-Indo-European language gives us some stems which are hard to denote whether they used to mean an adjective or a verb. Some later branches reflect such stems as verbs, but other made them adjectives. So it was the Proto-Indo-European epoch where adjectives as the part of speech began to transform from a verbal one to a nominal one. And all

Indo-European branches already show the close similarity of the structure of adjectives and nouns in the language. So does the Old English language, where adjective is one of the nominal parts of speech. As well as the noun, the adjective can be declined in case, gender and number. Moreover, the instrumental case which was discussed before was preserved in adjectives much stronger than in nouns. Adjectives must follow sequence with nouns which they define - thet is why the same adjective can be masculine, neuter and feminine and therefore be declined in two different types: one for masculine and neuter, the other for feminine nouns. The declension is more or less simple, it looks much like the nominal system of declension, though there are several important differences.

Interesting to know that one-syllable adjectives ("monosyllabic") have different declension than two-syllable ones ("disyllabic"). See for yourselves: Strong Declension  a, ó-stems      Monosyllabic                    Sg.         Masc.     Neut.         Fem. N blæc (black) blæc        blacu G blaces          blaces      blæcre D blacum        blacum      blæcre

A blæcne        blæc         blace I  blace           blace         -                    Pl. N  blace         blacu         blaca G  blacra        blacra        blacra D  blacum      blacum      blacum A  blace        

blacu         blaca Here "I" means that very instrumental case, answering the question (by what? with whom? with the help of what?).      Disyllabic         Masc.     Neut.                Fem.                    Sg. N  éadig (happy) éadig        éadigu G  éadiges           éadiges     éadigre D 

éadigum          éadigum   éadigre A  éadigne           éadig        éadige I   éadige             éadige                    Pl. N  éadige            éadigu      éadiga G  éadigra           éadigra     éadigra D