The history of Old English and its development — страница 13

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numerals: Ordinal numerals  use the suffix -ta or -þa, etymologically a common Indo-European one (*-to-). The Old English Adverb. Adverbs can be either primary (original adverbs) or derive from the adjectives. In fact, adverbs appeared in the language rather late, and eraly Proto-Indo-European did not use them, but later some auxiliary nouns and pronouns losing their declension started to play the role of adverbial modifiers. That's how thew primary adverbs emerged. In Old English the basic primary adverbs were the following ones: þa (then) þonne (then) þæ'r (there) þider (thither) nú (now) hér (here) hider (hither) heonan (hence) sóna (soon) oft (often) eft (again) swá (so) hwílum (sometimes). Secondary

adverbs originated from the instrumental singular of the neuter adjectives of strong declension. They all add the suffix -e: wide (widely), déope (deeply), fæste (fast), hearde (hard). Another major sugroup of them used the suffixes -líc, -líce from more complexed adjectives: bealdlíce (boldly), freondlíce (in a friendly way). Adverbs, as well as adjectives, had their degrees of comparison: wíde - wídor - wídost (widely - more widely - most widely) long - leng (long - longer) feorr (far) - fierr sófte (softly) - séft éaþe (easily) - íeþ wel (well) - betre - best yfele (badly) - wiers, wyrs - wierst micele (much) - máre - mæ'st The Old English Verb. Old English system

had strong and weak verbs: the ones which used the ancient Germanic type of conjugation (the Ablaut), and the ones which just added endings to their past and participle forms. Strong verbs make the clear majority. According to the traditional division, which is taken form Gothic and is accepted by modern linguistics, all strong verbs are distinguished between seven classes, each having its peculiarities in conjugation and in the stem structure. It is easy to define which verb is which class, so you will not swear trying to identify the type of conjugation of this or that verb (unlike the situation with the substantives). Here is the table which is composed for you to see the root vowels of all strong verb classes. Except the VII class, they all have exact stem vowels for all four

main forms: Now let us see what Old English strong verbs of all those seven classes looked like and what were their main four forms. I should mention that besides the vowel changes in the stem, verbal forms also changed stem consonants very often. The rule of such changes is not mentioned practically in any books on the Old English language, though there is some. See for yourselves this little chart where the samples of strong verb classes are given with their four forms: Infinitive, Past singular, Past plural, Participle II (or Past Participle)                         Class I wrítan (to write), wrát, writon, writen snípan (to cut),

snáþ, snidon, sniden     Other examples: belífan (stay), clífan (cling), ygrípan (clutch), bítan (bite), slítan (slit), besmítan (dirty), gewítan (go), blícan (glitter), sícan (sigh), stígan (mount), scínan (shine), árísan (arise), líþan (go).                          Class II béodan (to offer), béad, budon, boden céosan (to choose), céas, curon, coren     Other examples: créopan (creep), cléofan (cleave), fléotan (fleet), géotan (pour), gréotan (weep),

néotan (enjoy), scéotan (shoot), léogan (lie), bréowan (brew), dréosan (fall), fréosan (freeze), forléosan (lose).                          Class III                   III a) a nasal consonant drincan (to drink), dranc, druncon, druncen     Other: swindan (vanish), onginnan (begin), sinnan (reflect), winnan (work), gelimpan (happen), swimman (swim).                   III b) l + a consonant helpan (to help), healp, hulpon, holpen