The History And Development Of Computers Essay — страница 2

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inspired to put is time into the invention of the first general-purpose computer called the Analytical Engine. The Analytical Engine was also never built. However, Babbage?s steam powered engine outlined the basic elements of the modern personal computer. It contains over 50,000 components, including small-perforated cards containing operating instructions as the basic design. These cards could ?store? memory for 1,000 numbers up to fifty decimal points long. The engine also contained a ?mill? consisting of output devices used to print out results. His idea of punch cards was borrowed from Joseph-Marie Jacquard who invented the Jacquard Loom obviously named after him. The Loom, produced in 1820 used punchboards to control weaving patterns. Computers were looked at as a way to

simplify large workloads into discreet tasks. The United States census of 1880 took seven years to tally. The fear of later censuses taking an even more absurd amount of time to count, the bureau turned to technology. An American inventor named Herman Hollerith also applied the Jacquard loom concept to computing. Rather than use Babbage?s idea of perforated cards, Jacquard decided to use cards storing data information, which he fed into a machine compiling the results instinctively. Punched holes in the cards would represent letters and number, a single hole depicted a number, while a combination of two holes portrayed a letter. This contrivance allowed the bureau to enumerate the census results in six weeks. Not only did Hollerith?s machine remarkably decrease the amount of time

the census took, but also the cards used represented stored memory of the census and reduced computational errors. Hollerith?s machine found its way into the business world founding Tabulating Machine Company in 1896, which later became International Business Machines (IBM) in 1924. After this point in history the evolution of the computer is began to become an increased desired area of interest. The first major interest began with the onset of World War II. The lust of the government having the ability to use computers to assist them in warfare inspired them to increase the funding of computing projects resulting in the motivation for technical progress in computing. German engineer Konrad Zuse had developed a computer to design airplanes and missiles by 1941 called the Z3. The

British were also in the pursuance of enhancing computer technology. They completed a secret code-breaking computer called Colossus used to decode German messages. The existence of the machine was not uncovered until decades after the war. The first all-electronic calculator was design by a Harvard engineer named Howard H. Aiken in 1944 who was working with IBM. The calculator was about the size of one half a football field and consisted of 500 miles of writing. It was called the Harvard-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or also known as the Mark I. The machine took anywhere from 3 to 5 seconds for each calculation but possessed the ability to compute complex equations. The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was produced in a partnership between the

United States government the University of Pennsylvania. The ENIAC contained 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints, the massive machine consumed 160 kilowatts of electrical power. It was developed by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly. The ENIAC was different form the Colossus and the Mark I in that it was a general-purpose computer, which was able to compute at speed up to 1,000 times faster than the Mark I. Since the ENIAC, computers have become more complex, and what once was the size of a football field is not the size of a fingernail. The evolution and development of the computer has taken thousands of giant leaps in advances since the start of the twentieth century and continues to grow. It took thousands of years for ancient scientists,

mathematicians, and philosophers to improve the smallest amount on the Abacus. Today, the world relies on computers to take care of everything and with out these great men who dedicated their lives to the advancement of computing, the world would not nearly be the way it is today.