The Heart Essay Research Paper CONTENTS3 — страница 2

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symptoms or warning signs. Other causes of sudden deaths include drowning, suffocation, electrocution, drug overdose, trauma (such as automobile accidents), and stroke. Drowning, suffocation, and drug overdose usually cause respiratory arrest which in turn cause cardiac arrest. Trauma may cause sudden death by severe injury to the heart or brain, or by severe blood loss. Stroke causes damage to the brain which can cause respiratory arrest and/or cardiac arrest. Angina People with coronary artery disease, whether or not they have had a heart attack, may experience intermittent chest pain, pressure, or discomforts. This situation is known as angina pectoris. It occurs when the narrowing of the coronary arteries temporarily prevents an adequate supply of blood and oxygen to meet the

demands of working heart muscles. ANGINA PECTORIS Angina Pectoris (from angina meaning strangling, and pectoris meaning breast) is commonly known simply as angina and means pain in the chest. The term “angina” was first used during a lecture in 1768 by Dr. William Heberden. The word was not intended to indicate “pain,” but rather “strangling,” with a secondary sensation of fear. Victims suffering from angina may experience pressure, discomfort, or a squeezing sensation in the centre of the chest behind the breastbone. The pain may radiate to the arms, the neck, even the upper back, and the pain may come and go. It occurs when the heart is not receiving enough oxygen to meet an increased demand. Angina, as mentioned before, is only temporarily, and it does not cause

any permanent damage to the heart muscle. The underlying coronary heart disease, however, continues to progress unless actions are taken to prevent it from becoming worse. Signs and Symptoms Angina does not necessarily involve pain. The feeling varies from individuals. In fact, some people described it as “chest pressure,” “chest distress,” “heaviness,” “burning feeling,” “constriction,” “tightness,” and many more. A person with angina may feel discomforts that fit one or several of the following descriptions: - Mild, vague discomfort in the centre of the chest, which may radiate to the left shoulder or arm - Dull ache, pins and needles, heaviness or pains in the arms, usually more severe in the left arm - Pain that feels like severe indigestion -

Heaviness, tightness, fullness, dull ache, intense pressure, a burning, vice-like, constriction, squeezing sensation in the chest, throat or upper abdomen - Extreme tiredness, exhaustion of a feeling of collapse - Shortness of breath, choking sensation - A sense of foreboding or impending death accompanying chest discomfort - Pains in the jaw, gums, teeth, throat or ear lobe - Pains in the back or between the shoulder blades Angina can be so severe that a person may feel frightened, or so mild that it might be ignored. Angina attacks are usually short, from one or two minutes to a maximum of about four to five. It usually goes away with rest, within a couple of minutes, or ten minutes at the most. Different Forms of Angina There are several known forms of angina. Brief pain that

comes on exertion and leave fairly quickly on rest is known as stable angina. When angina pain occurs during rest, it is called unstable angina. The symptoms are usually severe and the coronary arteries are badly narrowed. If a person suffers from unstable angina, there is a higher risk for that person to develop heart attacks. The pain may come up to 20 times a day, and it can wake a person up, especially after a disturbing dream. Another type of angina is called atypical or variant angina. In this type of angina, pain occurs only when a person is resting or asleep rather than from exertion. It is thought to be the result of coronary artery spasm, a sort of cramp that narrows the arteries. Causes of Angina The main cause of angina is the narrowing of the coronary arteries. In a

normal person, the inner walls of the coronary arteries are smooth and elastic, allowing them to constrict and expand. This flexibility permits varying amounts of oxygenated blood, appropriate to the demand at the time, to flow through the coronary arteries. As a person grows older, fatty deposits will accumulate on the artery walls, especially if the linings of the arteries are damaged due to cigarette smoking or high blood pressure. As more and more fatty materials build up, they form plaques which causes the arteries to narrow and thus restricting the flow of blood. This process is known as atherosclerosis. However, angina usually does not occur until about two-thirds of the artery’s diameter is blocked. Besides atherosclerosis, there are other heart conditions resulting in