The Exporters Pocketbook Essay Research Paper Sam

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The Exporters? Pocketbook Essay, Research Paper Sam Vaknin’s Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web SitesI. The Export Transaction and its DocumentsThe Transaction Finding a market for the goods (market research) Selecting the marketing channels Negotiations Pricing Distribution channels Order Contract Commercial Invoice Commercial Invoice must include (minimum): Payment Terms Mode of Payment Division of Costs Details of Carrier Details of Receiving Party Details of Buyer Other Details For best results use the ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) Standard Commercial Invoice Packing List must include (minimum): Contents of the Packaging (=of the shipment) If more than one package or outer and inner packing ? all contents per each packing and per each

package must be detailed separately Permits and Licenses Export licenses if needed Standards certificates Labeling Quality control certificates (highest is ISO, such as ISO-9002 or ISO-9000) Health and phytosanitary certificates Veterinary certificates Other permits, licenses and certificates Service Providers Marine Transport Air Transport Land Transport (lorry, train) Insurance Warehousing Banking and other Financial Services (factoring, forfeiting, etc.) Airway Bill of Lading (ABL) (More details later ? see appendices for samples) Holder of ABL does not own goods Air Transport Contract not effected ? but ABL proof of existence of such contract, including weight, measurements, number of packages and invoice. Marine Bill of Lading (MBL) Proof of receipt of goods in a certain

condition Proof of existence of transport contract MBL facilitates the transfer of ownership Negotiable, transferable and assignable Subject to the Hague conditions and MUST INCLUDE: Name and address of sender Port of loading and Port of discharge Date of lading and place of issuance of bill of lading Name of vessel and number of voyage Identity marks of cargo Description of goods ? number of packing units, weight, volume Condition of goods ? statement of carrier (if not stated ? the goods are in good condition) ?Clean on Board? not ?Foul? Types of Bills of Lading (BL) Shipped BL ? Goods are on deck of ship Received for Shipment ? Prior to loading onto ship Direct BL ? From origin to destination, transshipment not allowed Ocean Through BL ? In case of transit involving a few

carriers. In such a case, each carrier imposes its own conditions on each leg of the voyage and for the limited duration it handles the cargo. Pure Through BL ? First carrier must transport from port of loading to a mid-point and is responsible for damages to the goods. Combined Transport BL ? Pure BL which covers shipment by all means of transport (sea, air, land). Forwarder BL ? An agent?s BL. Issued by an international forwarder. Freight Forwarder BL ? BLs of the International Forwarders Association ? FIATA Types of Insurance Policies (IP) The IP is prepared by the insurance agent or the insurance company. Open Time IP ? One time IP, used in air/marine transport. Policy expires with the completion of the transport (with delivery). Open IP ? Open or current policy used to

insure a number of shipments. Payment of premium only for actual shipments. Entails a declaration by the insured to the insurer pertaining to each and every shipment on a pre-determined basis (ad hoc, weekly, monthly and so on). The rights of the insured party are NOT effected if it BONA FIDE forgot or had no time to declare to the insurer as per above, or if it gave the insurer a declaration containing wrong information. The right declaration can be filed even after the goods are lost or delivered. Types of Certificates of Origin (CO) Required by the authorities as a basis for customs duties and taxes discounts or exemptions under trade agreements. Some destination require CO per each shipment. Others require CO only for specific goods. Sometimes the buyer demands a CO. The