The Evolution Of Jet Engines Essay Research
The Evolution Of Jet Engines Essay, Research Paper The Evolution of Jet Engines The jet engine is a complex propulsion device which draws in air by means of an intake, compresses it, heats it by means of an internal combustion engine, which when expelled it turns a turbine to produce thrust, resulting in a force sufficient enough to propell the aircraft in the opposite direction (Morgan 67). When the jet engine was thought of back in the 1920’s the world never thought it would become a reality, but by 1941 the first successful jet flight was flown in England. Since then the types of engines have changed, but the basic principals have remained the same. In 1921 thoughts of a jet engine were based upon adaptations of piston engines and were usually very heavy and complicated. These thoughts were refined in the 1930’s when the turbine engine design lead to the patent of the turbojet engine by Sir Frank Whittle of Great Britian. It was Sir Whittle’s design that lead Great Britian into the jet age with the first successful flight. At the same time, the Germans were designing there own jet engine and aircraft which would be one of the factors that kept Germany alive in World War II. With technological advances by the allies a prototype turbojet known as the “Heinkel He 178″ came into a few operational squadrons in the German, British, and the American air forces towards the end of World War II. These jets finally helped the allies to win the war against the axis powers(Smith 23-27). A later development in the jet industry was the overcoming of the sound barrier and establishing normal operations up to and beyond twice the speed of sound. Also air force bombers and transports were able to reach and cruise at supersonic speeds(Silverstein 56-70). In the late 1950’s civil transcontinental jet services started with the Comet 4 and the Boeing 707. In the mid 1960’s all major jet manufacturing companies revised their present engines with new materials such as aircraft aluminium which made them lighter and turbine changes so they could compress the air at a much higher pressure so the engine can produce much more thrust.The first supersonic airliner is the twin turbojet Concorde which flies at over twice the speed of sound which was brought into regular service in 1976(Smith 27-30). The one company that dominates the private jet industry is Bombardier which makes the Learjet turbofans, they have an approximate cruising distance of 1880 nautical miles(Jennings 103). In the future, turbojet engines will continue to further develop due to the technological advances made. As in graphite composite wings, thermoplastic chassis, and kevlar skins that have changed the weight of modern planes and gliders. With these and other developments jet engines will be honed to produce greater thrust without increases in weight or size. Which will involve small refinements rather than major changes to the existing engine and engine compartment. In the near future there will be a substantial reduction of noise emitted from the jet engine, due to a change in materials and a reduction of vibration in the housing. Right now the jet industry has over one thousand jets operational at one time, which poses the threat of malfunction and crashes. With the new computer analysis of problems and the new materials found in the internals of the engines, there is less of a risk of malfunction than in the past. Many factors have lead to the popular take over of the jet, replacing the traditional propeller driven planes. Some of the basic reasons are the speed, fuel economy, and endurance of the jet engine oveer piston-driven engines. Together with the new refinements and the currently changing jet industry, future transportation will become faster and safer for the flier.