The English Civil War Essay Research Paper — страница 3
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started the conflagration that destroyed the commonwealth?. Unfortunately, the restoration of the Monarchy was not that simple. Monck, a general from Scotland who had been one of Cromwell?s most loyal friends and companions, marched into England and demanded that Rump Parliament be recalled. Fleetwood and Lambert were obligated to follow Monck?s orders and restored the Rump Parliament. Almost immediately after it was reintroduced, it turned it?s forces against Fleetwood and Lambert. Lambert was captured and fearing for his own safety, Fleetwood allowed the Scottish Army to invade England with no resistance. Once Monck had established control over London, he informed the Rump Parliament that the civilians would be satisfied with nothing less than a newly elected parliament. However, the Rump Parliament still refused to give up their position. They could not hold out for that much longer and eventually, they were forced to resign. Once the Rump was dissolved, Monck had a secret meeting with Charles II, who was heir to the English throne, and his advisor. During this meeting, Monck laid out certain rules which he said that the King must oblige by. Charles, who did not agree with the terms that Monck set out, took a letter to the new Parliament explaining what Monck was doing. At the same time, Lambert escaped from his imprisonment and called a reunion of his men to try to overthrow Monck. Monck, who insisted that ?all regiments of Parliament say that they will obey him without a question and abide by any decision of Parliament.? was overthrown on Parliament?s decision to offer Charles II the throne of England. Eleven years after his father?s execution, Charles II crossed the English channel to be crowned King of England and to mark the restoration of the English Monarchy that had been abolished during the Civil War. The first task of the reestablished Monarchy was to rid themselves of Oliver Cromwell?s army. The Monarchy had full Parliamentary support to complete this task. Charles formed the 1st Regiment of foot guards and with Monck?s army, the 2nd Regiment of foot guards was made. What was originally Cromwell?s Regiment of horse was divided into the Duke of York?s lifeguards and the Royal Horse Guards. This was the beginning of the British Regular Army. Although it was almost impossible to demolish the entire army, King Charles II did the best job that he could. Charles II was compelled to make an Act of Indemnity and Oblivion, which some criticized as ?indemnity to enemies, oblivion to friends?. However, this was simply a reflection of the fact that Parliament won the English Civil War and that restoration of the Monarchy was an ?act of grace.? Because of this, Parliament and the King made some agreements: the King could never take money from citizens without consenting with Parliament first as well as never operating outside the courts of the common law through the Star chamber- a forum for commonfolk to voice their opinions. As well, the King had complete power over military decisions and no one would have powers over the King. Despite all the chaos and disorder within the Monarchy and Parliament, ?constitution and structure or society and government appeared untouched by the traumatic events.? With the exception of the agreements between Parliament and the Monarchy, things were restored back to how they were before the war. The king was once again chronically short of money and depended on Parliament for money. Once again, it seemed as though the events that occurred during the English Civil War had never occurred. While the Civil War was taking place, many issues in society went through reform. The people of England lost a lot of family members who were close to them, the Church of England was cause for a lot of rebellions as religions emerged and formed and the Monarchy was completely dissolved only to be revived again by the winners of the war- Parliament. However, once the dust had settled, there were only a few changes which had occurred in English society. Everything else was like the ?clocks had been turned back to before the Civil War.?: The English Civil War was different then the ones in Scotland or Ireland since there were no major long-term effects. It is believed that this is because the Civil War in England was simply a product of short-term events as well as miscalculations from the king, and not because of long-term effects building up like those in Ireland and Scotland. Although the English Civil War disrupted the entire society of England while it took place, England and it?s infrastructure was almost identical only a few short years after, as it was before the war began.