The English Civil War Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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was a complicated procedure to merge the soldiers into society as every day working people, however since it took place at two different times; once when Cromwell was dissolving the army and once when the new Parliament was attempting to rid themselves of the army completely. Because of this, it affected both sides in different ways at different times. This process limited the war?s long-term effects. The city of London literally ?scratched out it?s history of cooperating with Cromwell by drawing lines through the appropriate pages of it?s record books.? It was almost as if the people of England erased the memory of the Civil War and started their lives where they left off before the war started. Another aspect of society which was effected during the English Civil War was the

Church and religion. In a sense, religion played a role in the suspicion which arose within Parliament. It was because of a suspected favoritism towards Roman Catholics that John Pym turned against King Charles I. And because of the Irish Rebellion in which the Irish rose up against the English Protestants, Parliament felt that there was a conspiracy against English liberty in which Charles was participating. Parliament, who was composed of mainly Puritans, was fighting a war for their freedom in what they believed was a conspiracy against them. In 1645, six days before the execution of Archbishop Land, the Book of Common Prayer was abolished in favour of the Presbyterian directory of worship. This appeared to be the end of an era for the Church of England. During the Civil War,

many new religions emerged. Baptists did not believe that children should be baptized, Levellers were far more radical, accepting the sacredness of private property but they demanded new laws that would protect the poor as well as the wealthy. Diggers opposed the private ownership of land and sought the abolition of wage labor. Ranters rejected the idea of Heaven, Hell and sin and thought that true salvation could be found only in drink and sex. Because England was in a state of anarchy during the war, rebels destroyed churches and cathedrals without a trace of guilt. Religious festivals, opposed by the Puritans were practiced by Anglicans in order to raise money for the church. In the 1650?s, Oliver Cromwell attempted to unite all Protestants in a single-state church with

outside tolerance. This idea failed since the possibility of a single all-embracing state church was impossible even before revolution. From then on, England possessed two Protestant nations as well as a Roman Catholic minority. After the Monarchy was revised and the events of the Civil war were finished, the Church of England regained it?s title as the established church of the country. Once again, any other religions were not tolerated by it and the church expelled Presbyterian ministers. The Church of England had returned to it?s state from before the war, almost as if the destruction of alters and cathedrals in rebellion had never happened. The Monarchy of England was severely affected by the Civil War during the actual events of the war, however, it was restored almost back

to normal after the occurrences had been resolved. Soon after Parliament?s victory, King Charles I was charged on the terms that he had ?personally started and waged war against Parliament?. Oliver Cromwell, the leader of Parliament, took office over England in 1653 with the title ?Lord Protector?. He began dissolving his army soon after Parliament?s victory as well as dissolving the Rump Parliament. Cromwell?s government was beginning to seem familiar to many civilians as it was beginning to be run similar to the monarchy which Cromwell wanted to reform. He was making laws without the advice of Parliament as well as ignoring their authority when it came to setting taxes. Despite his decreasing popularity, Cromwell was offered the throne of England, which he refused. When

Cromwell died in 1658, his son Richard Cromwell tried too hard to enforce his father?s policies and the Wallingford house party, lead by Fleetwood, coaxed him down from power. However, the Wallingford house party was forced to recall the Rump Parliament, who?s priorities were clearly in restoring the power of the army. Lambert, who was a Parliamentary general during the war, was recalled to help to dissolve Rump Parliament. The Royalists joined with the Presbyterians and Lambert, and together they called for an election of a new Parliament. They won their fight and sent a petition up to the rump wanting a ?select senate? which would speed up the dissolution of parliament and confirm Fleetwood as Commander in Chief and Lambert as second in command. This was ?the spark which