The Eight Wonder — страница 3

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Friedel, U.S.N, which was the first navaldefense of the U.S. on the Panama Canal12. This base provided a huge advantageof positioning in case of any conflicts over seas, since the canal made the distance from the Atlantic to the Pacific much shorter and because U.S. warships have freeand interrupted transit 13 across the Isthmus.Apart from the benefits, the United States also has a tremendous influence onPanama and the Isthmus. The domination that the U.S. has over Panama isdescribed by John F. Muccio, when he writes to Philip W. Bonsal on June 6, 1944: The army can completely and thoroughly sabotagePanamanian commercial life through simply declaringeither all Panama or specific business enterprises offlimits to soldiers… Our control over water works andother utilities can

completely stop the development ofwhole sections of the cities of Panama… Every realistic Panamanian, just as every realisticAmerican, is fully aware that this influence over the dailylife of Panama exist…14 The United States also possesses $1.8 billion of investments in Panama,and North American Banks, multinational corporations, mineral processingcompanies, and agribusinesses dominate Panama s economy.The United States takes advantage of the power it has over Panama. During war,the U.S. paid Spain $20 million to $30 million each year for the use of airbases inSpanish territories, and knowing that Panama relies greatly on the canal foreconomic reasons, pays only $1.9 to $2.3 million in annual rental of the Isthmus.15The United States didn t paid Panama enough for the use of

the canal zone, evenwhen the canal could produce $2 billion annually, according to a United Nationreport.16 The United States, just like Spain and France understood from the beginningthe importance of a canal that connected the Atlantic to the pacific ocean throughthe Isthmus of Panama. Colombia didn t have the resources or the influence to build a canal alongthe Panama Isthmus by itself, and the United States knew this. That is why the U.S.helped Panama gained their independence from Colombia by helping andencouraging a revolt, and selfishly recognized Panama to secure their rights on thecanal zone. By doing this, the United States gained a lot of power and influence asstated on this paper. Note: Panamanians believed that the U.S. took advantage of their vulnerableposition of

under-developed country and therefore arranged that the United Stateswill seized control of the Canal to Panama on January 31st, 1999. And although the U.S. will still have the right to defend the canal s neutrality afterthat date, the ownership and control will be held by the rightful owner: Panama. BIBLIOGRAPHY New Isthmus Company. The New York Times. July 2, 1901, p.4 U.S. Navy always has played Important part with the Canal. PanamaAmerican. August 15,1939 Gause, Frank A., The Story Of Panama-The New Route to India. Boston, New York, Chicago: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1912. George, Judith St., Panama Canal-Gateway to the World. New York: G.P., Putnam`s Sons, 1989. Jorden, William J., Panama Odyssey. Texas: University of Texas Press,1984. LaFeber, Walter., The Panama Canal-

The Crisis in Historical Perspective.New York: Oxford University Press, 1978 Ryan, Paul B., The Panama Canal Controversy. Palo Alto: HooverInstitution Publication, 1977.