The Effects On Children When Both Parents — страница 3

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positive feelings are reflected in their relationships with their siblings. (Lerner and Galambous 44) Finally, when considering quantity of time spent on parenting when both parents work, it has been concluded by Hoffman in 1974 that there is no consistent evidence of deprivation felt by children of employed mother s. In fact, mothers who were better educated and employed outside the home spent more time with their children even at the expense of their own leisure and sleep time. (Hoffman 76) Hoffman also proposes that the time spent on employment simply substitutes for time previously spent on needless or less important household tasks which can be performed by others or not at all. Researchers question the validity of measuring the number of hours a mother spends with her

children. Hoffman found that while working mothers spent less time with their children , the time spent with them was more likely to be in direct contact with them. Mothers who are at home full time spend only 5% of their time in direct interaction with their children. (Hoffman 75) Employed mothers spend about the same time reading to, playing with and otherwise paying attention to their children as do mothers who stay at home. (Hoffman 76) Because society has changed, the family s function within society has changed as well. Parental roles have been modified to meet these changes. Today, the family s most important task is to provide emotional security in a vast and impersonal world. Working parents often possess the skills necessary for responding adequately and creatively to

the increased stress placed on children to succeed in such an environment. Parents who work must, out of necessity, be adept at providing fresh, innovative and effective modes of parenting even when time with the child is limited. The debate as to whether or not both parents should work or not is really not significant anymore. Both parents are working and will continue to do so and children are not being raised today in the same way as they were in the past. The next generation of parents will be more confident than their predecessors and they and their children will probably never experience the dichotomous feelings that today s parents have about the dual income family and it s effects on child rearing. Working outside the home and being a good parent at the same time is

possible and in both of these tasks there is much to value and treasure. 374