The Effects On Children When Both Parents — страница 2

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the same time, the daughter may also be left with the job of looking after a younger sibling, helping to promote her sense of responsibility. Significant too, is the fact that daughters of working mother s tend to be more decisive about their futures than sons. Further studies have demonstrated that a mother s employment status and occupation tends to be a good predictor of the outcome of the working mother s daughter, since daughters tend to follow in their mother s footsteps. Typically, working mothers held higher educational aspirations for their children and furthermore, most daughters tend to achieve higher grades in school. (Spitz 606) It is also important to note that both male and female children acquire more egalitarian sex role attitudes when both parents work. Boys

with working mothers showed better social and personal skills than boys of non-working mothers. On a negative note, middle-class boys tend to do worse in school when their mothers worked. (Shreve 118) As well, boys whose mothers work tend to have strained relationships with their fathers due to their perceptive devaluation of their father s worth as an adequate bread-winner. (Adele 32) One can conclude that males may be negatively affected when their mothers work, but males and, to a greater degree, females are affected in many positive ways with regards to achievement in independence and responsibility. Adequate child care is a necessity for parents who both work. It is often complicated to balance both the parent s and child s needs when using child care. However, it may be

possible to satisfy the demands of both if forethought and prudence are applied. Many cultures worldwide realize that a child s nurturing can be acquired from a variety of sources including both adults and older children. Children can be as comfortable with grandparents, neighbors, professional child care attendants, and babysitters as they are with their own mothers. In fact, a variety of sources for nurturing not only provide the child with a variety of role models, such as in the case of grandparents, but it also provides them the ability to compare these role models and to choose the appropriate characteristics which they will adopt as their own. One third of all children are looked after by relatives; 50% of all children in child care situations are being looked after by

someone unrelated to them. (Petterson 533) To date, in Ontario as in all of Canada, there is no adequate government policy for child care. Funds ear marked for this area of social assistance are either misappropriated or abused. Even now, in 1995, the government of Canada has not yet recognized the fact that children are a community responsibility and that they should start treating them as such. (Monsebraaten A1) In the end, the responsibility of choosing the proper type of child care lies with the working parents. Proper research of the day care facilities and employees should include an investigation into the availability of superior care in a quality program where rearing beliefs and practices mirror those of the parents. When both parents feel confident in their day care

choices, they will view them as supportive influences rather than intrusive ones. This positive attitude will provide the child with positive feedback because when parents feel good about their lives and decisions, they communicate their satisfaction to their children in the form of positive feelings. These positive feelings are then internalized by the children. (Rodman 576) Difficult as it may seem, it is clear that if forethought, research and adequate investigative techniques are applied, parents can successfully select the child care facility and/or individual most appropriate to fulfill both their own and their child s needs. Parents who work alter several traditional methods of parenting. The aspects of parenting which are most affected are quality, quantity and content.

When considering content, a major point is the preparation of the child for a society in which those children will be adults. Currently, a child has a 50% chance of becoming divorced, and in the case of a female, a 50% chance of becoming a single mother as well as the probability of becoming a member of a dual wage earning family. (Shreve 61) Working parents are in a good position to prepare their children for that type of lifestyle. Healthy family dynamics including team work, sharing, and responsibility, are more easily adopted when they are already familiar. As far as quality of parenting, it has been observed that women who are highly satisfied with their roles whether they work or not, display higher levels of warmth and acceptance than do dissatisfied mothers and these