The Effects Of Smoking Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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make the arteries (important blood transport vessels) hard and narrow, and more likely to become blocked. It also raises the body’s blood pressure, and makes the heart work harder. The carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke deprives the body of much needed oxygen. Acting together these things can cause death, or permanent disability. Narrow arteries may burst under pressure of the blood trying to get through. This is called aneurysm, and is life threatening. Blockages in the blood supply around the heart can lead to a heart attack. A blockage in the brain can cause strokes, which can cause death or disability. The damage depends on what part of the brain is effected. If blockages in the veins of the arms or legs occur, severe pain will result, and the body part may need to be

amputated. This type of blood vessel disease is called peripheral vascular disease (U.S. DHHS “The Health”). Other important causes of heart disease that people can avoid are having high blood fat levels, high blood pressure, and being overweight. If someone smokes as well as has any of these other factors, then they are at a much greater risk of developing heart disease (National Heart Foundation Pg. 5). Long-term exposure to the chemicals in cigarette smoke can lead to cancer in different parts of the body. Smoke from cigarettes contains 43 different chemicals known to cause cancer (U.S. DHHS “Reducing Health”). Lung cancer is the most common form of cancer caused by smoking. It can take many years to develop, and almost always leads to death (Association of Cancer

Registries Pg. 22). Most people who die from lung cancer are people who smoke (Association of Cancer Registries Pg. 22). Smoking also causes cancer of the lips, tongue, mouth, throat, air pipe, and pancreas, and is linked to cancers of the stomach, bladder, cervix, and kidneys (U.S. DHHS “The Health”). It is estimated that smoking causes around a third of all cancer deaths (Association of Cancer Registries Pg. 21). When we breathe in, our lungs stretch to fill their air sacs (called alveoli). Oxygen passes through the alveoli wall to the blood. Carbon dioxide leaves the blood as we exhale. A smoker’s lungs also fill with gases from tobacco smoke, so other gases and chemicals enter the blood stream as well. The airways are lined with tiny hairs called cilia. Cilia help

filter out dust and other particles we breath in. Chemicals in tobacco smoke have a harmful effect on cilia. When the cilium are unable to clean the airways, there is a buildup of mucous and poisons that can lead to damage and disease (U.S. DHHS “The Health”). The lungs respond to the damage caused by tobacco smoke by producing more mucus and phlegm, which makes a smoker need to cough. This is commonly known as a smoker’s cough. Smokers are also more likely to get infections in the lungs and airways due to the extra mucus secretions. This is called chronic bronchitis. Eventually the lungs loose their ability to stretch, and become hard and narrow, making breathing more difficult and reducing the ability of the lungs to work properly. Emphysema is damage to the small airways

within the lungs. The elastic walls around the air sacks are permanently destroyed, and are unable to contract and expand. This makes parts of the lungs unable to work properly. Some degree of emphysema is found in almost all people who smoke more than twenty cigarettes per day (U.S. DHHS “The Health”). Smoking raises the heart rate and blood pressure, and reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. Chemicals in cigarette smoke also irritate the airways and make then narrower. These immediate effects make it more difficult for the body to perform at its best. The carbon monoxide in the blood also can effect eyesight, response time, and coordination. Even after one day of not smoking, more oxygen is available to the blood, and the body’s physical performance improves

(American Lung Association Pg. 1). As well as the health problems and diseases, women who smoke face additional problems. Women smokers are more likely to have irregular periods, and to reach menopause early. They also have a greater risk of developing cancer of the cervix (American Lung Association Pg. 6). Women who smoke and use the contraceptive pill have a ten times greater risk of heart attack, stroke and cardiovascular disease (U.S. DHHS “Health Consequences of smoking for women”). Smoking also effects male fertility. Studies have shown that male smokers produce less sperm and have more abnormal sperm than nonsmoker’s (American Lung Association Pg. 7). Male smokers are also more likely to have difficulty getting an erection, due to problems with blood flow to the