The Effects Of Lucid Dreaming On The — страница 2

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frequency and severity of the nightmares. Tholey (1988) describes what he calls the “self-healing program ” based upon his research of lucidity training. The program “contains guidelines on (1) in the techniques for inducing and ending lucid dreams, (2) on methods for incubating and manipulating the contents of lucid dreams, (3) on the appropriate behavior regarding resistance (such as ‘defense’ or ‘avoidance’ mechanisms), and (4) on helpful principles for interaction with other dream figures” (Tholey, 1988 pp. 272-273). Tholey reports his program to be successful in the treatment of recurrent nightmares as well as improving other symptoms the client may be suffering such as anxiety, shyness, and social adjustment difficulties. In this study we have attempted to

identify that lucid dreaming is beneficial in the treatment of clients suffering from frequent nightmares. It was assumed that the techniques developed by well known researchers in the field of lucid dreaming will provide a more holistic, self-healing response within the individual undergoing treatment for nightmares than the use of more evasive techniques such as drug therapy, shock therapy, and neurosurgery. Study the effects of lucid dreaming on the severity and frequency of nightmares is a very important step that must be taken in order to provide support for the technique as a beneficial tool in the psychiatric field. Method Participants Six of the 68 non-psychotic patients, who were seen in a psychiatry emergency room during the midnight shift over a three month period who

reported nightmares volunteered to participate in our study. The clients case history was organized in the context of a crisis intervention format. An attempt was mad to put the current situation in perspective by reinforcing positive past and current experiences, developing short and long range plans. Each client was asked to report his/her dream and nightmare experiences. Volunteers were paid for their participation and treated in accordance with the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct ” (American Psychological Association, 1992). Design and Procedures An eighteen week contract was negotiated with three of the individuals for lucid dream therapy of nightmares with the following stipulated: ” (1) A dream/nightmare journal was to be kept and brought to

therapy each week, (2) The mnemonic induction of lucid dreaming (MILD) technique was given to” (Brylowski, 1990 p.80) each individual “to be practiced each night, and instructed to read the book, Lucid Dreaming, by S.P. LaBerge. MILD is technique in which the person repeats before falling asleep ‘The next time that I’m dreaming I want to remember to realize that I’m dreaming.’ This has been reported to increase the frequency of lucid dreams.” (Brylowski, 1990, p.80) Each individual ” was told that the MILD technique could be modified when any recurrent dream themes were identified. A modified MILD inserts the theme as an added cue to remember to realize that you are dreaming, i.e. ‘The next time I’m dreaming about (recurrent theme) I want to remember to

realize that I’m dreaming” (Brylowski, 1990, p. 80), and (3) ” Connections of dream content with current or developmental issues could be noted but we would focus on resolving the fear and terror of the nightmares.” (Brylowski, 1990, p.80). A second contract was negotiated with the remaining three clients who were used as control group. This contract consisted of step one and three as noted above with the experimental group but omitted the mnemonic induction of lucid dreaming (MILD) technique. Each individual was scheduled weekly for psychotherapy with a trained professional to record data. “Through Socratic questioning” (Brylowski 1990, p.80) each individual in the experimental group, was helped to deal with his/her dreams as “internal constructs that need not be

feared but could be used as tools for cultivating lucidity and understanding” (Brylowski, 1990, p. 80) oneself. The recognition that “this is a dream” was used to reinforce the client that they were already in bed and safe from harm. The core of the therapy “was cultivating dream lucidity in an effort to prevent the reemergence of nightmares and to maintain access to intrapsychic matters.” (Brylowski, 1990, p.80). “The rationale for this treatment is as follows: by repeatedly rehearsing the recurrent dream together with a task which is intentionally carried out at a preselected salient point in the dream, the subject will remember to carry out the task when the recurrent dream occurs.” (Zadra & Pihl, 1997 p. 51). Results Those participants in the experimental