The Effects Of Exercise Is It For — страница 2

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wears down the neurological system. A thirty seven percent decrease in the number of spinal cord nerves occur as people age. The speed at which their nervous system functions slows. There is a significant loss in the elastic properties of their connective tissues. These neural function changes mean they will move and react far less quickly as time passes. Their movements will not only be slower but also not as precise. Most of these changes are subtle, occur over a period of time and are slow to be recognized. The aging process also affects the cardiovascular system. As people grow older their heart doesn’t pump as fast, as efficiently or with as much force. Results from studies suggest that regular exercise enables older individuals to retain cardiovascular functioning to a

greater extent than if they were not regularly exercising. The bottom line in the aging process is how well they feel. If they exercise regularly there is no doubt they’ll feel better than if they didn’t (Katch and Katch 24) Regular exercise improves physical abilities and changes the structure and composition of their body but besides this exercise also brings about phychological changes. Exercise itself can make people more mentally alert. Pilot studies investigated the relationship between long-distant swimming and short- term memory, research found immediately following exercise the swimmers experienced an increase in ability to take in and process information. Other athletes M Wing 4 also report an increased sense of smell, touch, taste and visual sharpness immediately

following a workout. Research indicates that even relatively short endurance activities result in changes in short term memory capacity. (Pavlou, Konstantin and Zak 144) According to David C Nieman in Exercise Testing and Prescription Physical activity improves health in the following ways: ? Reduces the risk of dying prematurely (i.e., improves life expectancy) ? Reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease ? Reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes ? Helps prevent and treat high blood pressure ? Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer ? Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety, while improving mood state and self- esteem ? Helps control body weight ? Helps build and maintain healthy bones and muscles, and improves heart and lung fitness Improves the life

quality of older adults, patients with disease, and people of all ages And also states that moderate exercise during pregnancy serves to maintain the fitness of the mother and has been associated with several favorable pregnancy outcomes. (Nieman 601-3) These benefits may accrue to male and females of all races across all age spans. You are never too young or too old to reap the health benefits of exercise (Williams 3) Psychological effects of physical exercise can be divided into two general categories: Short term effects, ones that occur while people are exercising or shortly after, and long term effects, those that span interpersonal relationships and individual success. (Toporowski 90) M Wing 5 The short-term effects of exercise may reduce stress by producing a tranquilizing

effect on a persons mind. Aerobic exercise research has shown that even mild, continuous exercise is at least as effective in reducing muscular tension as tranquilizing drugs. (Tomporowski 51) The long-term effects of exercise can improve a person’s ability to adapt to stress, due to an increase of adrenalin activity that results from repeated exercise. The body has an increase reserve in the steroids that are available to counter stress. Research shows that when a person exercises, particularly with aerobics they are developing a method of biofeedback, so they can control changes in heart rate and respiration. When they do endurance type activity they stay in a target heart rate range. They will be able to maintain their heart rate at an elevated level, but at a level that

does not produce a great deal of exhaustion. In this way, exercise, especially aerobics is a form of stress management. When there is a general long lasting reduction in muscle tension from exercise, they also have the capability to alter their level of arousal. This carries over to other situations again; they become aware of bodily cues and can unconsciously deal with stress more effectively. (Tomporowski 90) Their ability to accomplish everyday tasks will improve. With long-term exercise they are able to accomplish more work, are less likely to become fatigued and are better able to handle day-to-day psychological stress. (Tomporowski 92) One reason for this is that when they exercise they begin to release stored fat as an energy supply, and their blood sugar level remains