The Effects Of Birth Control Essay Research — страница 2

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very lose dose pills and are having problems with spotting. In those cases, varying the time at which you take the pill can increase spotting, but it won?t decrease effectiveness no matter what. What most doctor?s recommend is that you try to associate taking your birth control pills with an activity you do every day. For example, brush your teeth in the morning, or with breakfast. But, if you do these activities at a different time some days, you really don?t need to worry. For some users the pill can have undesirable and sometimes serious side effects such as weight gain, nausea, hypertension, or the formation of blood clots or noncancerous liver tumors. The risk of such effects increases for women above the age of 35 who smoke. Pills are obtainable only by prescription and

after a review of a woman?s medical history and check of her physical condition. In 1991 the FDA approved the use of the norplant, a long-lasting contraceptive that is implanted under the skin on the inside of a woman?s under arm. The implant consists of six matchstick-size flexible tubes that contain a synthetic hormone called progestin. Released slowly and steadily over a five-year period, this drug inhibits ovulation and thickens cervical mucus, preventing sperm from reaching eggs. The FDA approved the use of Depo-Provera in 1992. This injectable contraceptive contains a synthetic version of the hormone progesterone and is given four times a year. When conception is not desired, the time to avoid sex is about midway a woman?s menstrual cycle; this was not discovered until the

1930?s, when studies established that an egg is released (ovulation) from an ovary about once a month, usually about 14 days before the next menstrual flow. Conception may occur if the egg is fertilized during the next 24 hours or so of if intercourse happens a day or two before or after the egg is released, because live sperm can be present. Therefore, the days just before, during, and immediately following ovulation are considered unsafe to have unprotected intercourse; other days in the cycle are considered safe. Birth control based on calendar records of menstrual cycles, known as the rhythm method, has proved unreliable, because cycles may vary due to fatigue, illness, or physical or emotional stress. However, the time of ovulation, and therefore when to avoid intercourse,

can be determined by observing a number of physical changes. A woman?s body temperature rises slightly during ovulation and remains high until just before the next flow is heavier. As the quantity of mucus is reduced, it becomes cloudy and viscous and may disappear. These signals indicate the approximate time of ovulation and have led to a method of birth control called natural family planning. The avoidance of intercourse around ovulation is the only birth control method approved by the FDA. Birth Control, or limiting reproduction, has become an major importance in the contemporary world because of the problems posed by population growth. Until relatively recently most cultures encouraged such growth. The increasing at a faster rate than its means of support, but 19th-century

reformers who in response advocated birth control met bitter opposition from physicians. Infection with the HIV virus is a greater threat to the health of many sexually active individuals than is an unplanned pregnancy. Pills provide no known protection against HIV infection. Condoms should be used instead of or in addition to pills if protection against HIV is desired in an intimate sexual relationship. Abstinence and a long-term mutually faithful relationship are the safest approaches to avoiding HIV infections transmitted by intercourse. Some disadvantages and cautions with taking any kind of birth control is. Pills must be taken daily, expense, unwanted menstrual cycle chages, nausea or vomiting, headaches, depression, decreased libido, cervical ectopia and chlamydia

infection, other infections possibly, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary emboli; and other cardiovascular disease, glucose intolerance, gallbladder disease, hepatocellular adenomas, cancer, other side effects, estrogenic effects, progestogenic effects, and androgenic effects. Taking pills is complicated, and compliance is poor for many individuals. Pills must be taken ever day. When pill use is inconsistent or incorrect, failure rates rise to high levels. The high cost of pill in many pharmacies may prompt some women to discontinue pills. Pills may be associated with menstrual changes including missed periods, very scanty bleeding, spotting, or breakthrough bleeding. Nausea may occur in the first cycle or so of pill use or, less commonly, in subsequent cycles. Headaches may start in a