The Effect Of Landmark Supreme Court Cases — страница 3

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During the adjudicated hearing, Jones was declared delinquent. At a later dispositional hearing, Jones was determined to be unfit for treatment as a juvenile and transferred to adult court. As an adult, Jones was convicted of first degree robbery (Schmalleger 547). Jones? attorney appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. The court ruled that Jones was put in jeopardy at the Juvenile Court adjudicatory hearing. The decision was reversed and Jones? conviction was vacated. A juvenile adjudicated delinquent cannot be convicted in adult court for the same offense (Schmalleger 547). In the case Schall v. Martin, Gregory Martin, age 14, was arrested in New York in 1984. He was charged with robbery and weapons possession and held for two weeks in a secured detention facility until his

hearing. A New York statue, the prevented detention law, allowed the two week detention of Martin because authorities felt he was a continued delinquency risk. After his hearing Martin was adjudicated delinquent (Wrobleski 572). The case was eventually appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court on the claim that the New York detention law had denied Martin?s freedom before he was convicted. Martin?s attorney claimed that Martin?s Fourteenth Amendment right was violated. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the New York law. The court ruled that states had a legitimate interest in preventing future delinquency (Wrobleski 572). In conclusion, there are differences in the adult and juvenile justice systems. In the juvenile system there is not a major concern placed on the

legal issues of guilt or innocence, but more on the interest of the child. Another difference is the fact that the juvenile system focuses on treatment rather than punishment. The courts have created a unique justice system for juveniles. The courts have taken in consideration the needs of the juveniles while trying to offer society reasonable protection. Supreme Court decisions certainly have changed the juvenile system from what was during the Middle Ages. (Schmalleger 548). Cox, Steven M., and John J. Conrad, eds. Juvenile Justice A Guide to Practice and Theory. Madison: Brown and Benchmark, 1996. Fled, Barry C.,ed. Reading in Juvenile Justice Administration. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Inciardi, James A., ed. Criminal Justice. Texas: Harcourt Brace and Company,

1993. Rubin, Ted H., Ed. Juvenile Justice and Law. New York: Random House Inc., 1985. Samaha, Joel, ed. Criminal Justice. New York: West Publishing Co., 1991. Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today. New Jersey: Simon and Schuster Company, 1997. Senna, Joseph J., and Larry J. Siegel, eds. Introduction to Criminal Justice. New York: West Publishing Co., 1990. Stinchcomb, Jeanne, and Vernon Fox. Introduction to Corrections. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1999. Territo, Leonard, James B. Halsted, and Max L. Bromley, eds. Crime and Justice in America. Minnisota: West Publishing Co., 1995. Wrobleski, Henry, and K?ren M. Hess, eds. Introduction to Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. Minnisota: West publishing co., 1993.