The Early History Of Golf In The — страница 2

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times eventually ending up at its present site in Mt. Hope at Hastings-on-Hudson where, despite claims to the contrary, it survives as the oldest golf club in America. Golf as an organized sport As the game of golf rapidly spread throughout the country, a rivalry began to develop between golfers from the mid-west and East Coast. Charles Macdonald, often described as a rich, stubborn, and temperamental gentleman, was in the center of this competition. After losing two major tournaments in the same year ? one at the Newport Club and the other at St. Andrew?s ? Mr. Macdonald refused to accept the winners of those matches as the national champions. Macdonald argued, ?There could be no consensus as to a champion unless all of the nation’s golf clubs agreed to a yet- unestablished

common set of rules or an official national organization sponsored the contest? (qtd. in Doyle 4). In an effort to stop Macdonald?s claims from doing irreparable damage to the game, representatives from the five leading golf clubs met at the Calumet Club in December of 1894 and agreed to form the Amateur Golf Association of America. The association was later renamed the United States Golf Association. It?s goal was to ?promote the interests of golf, to promulgate a code of rules for the game, to hold annual meetings at which competitions shall be conducted for the amateur and open championships in the United States? (Doyle 5). By 1896, clubs listed as USGA members numbered sixty with applications for twenty-five others being considered for membership. Today, the USGA membership

exceeds 5,500 clubs throughout the United States. Golf, being one of the oldest of today?s modern sports, thrives in popularity continuing to entice young and old, male and female, rich and poor players. Simpson, W.G. ?The Origin of Golf.? A Tribute to Golf. Ed. Thomas Stewart. Harbor Springs, Michigan: Stewart, Hunter, and Associates. 1990. 78. Golf Magazine?s Encyclopedia of Golf. The Editors of Golf Magazine. New York, NY: Harper-Collins 1993. Doyle, Kathleen. ?In John Reid?s Cow Pasture.? Sports in America. Sept. 1988: 34-38. Peper, George. ?The Father of American Golf.? Golf Magazine. Dec. 1995. 118. Peper, George. ?Birth of the USGA.? Golf Magazine. Dec. 1994. 124. Hannigan, Frank. ?The History of the game of Golf.? Golf Digest Magazine. Jan. 2000. 171. Fields, Bill.

?Changing the course of history.? Golf Digest Magazine. Sept. 1999. 17. McCord, Robert, R. Golf: an album of its history. Short Hills, NJ: Burford Books. 1998. Anderson, David. The story of golf. New York: W. Morrow. 1998. Menzies, Gordon. World of golf. New York: Bantam. 1982.