The down of British History — страница 9

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thousand years. The queen (king) reigns, but she ( he) doesn’t rule. The acts on the advice of her (his) Prime Minister and doesn’t make any major political decisions. The monarch summons and dissolves the Parliament, opens the annual session of the Parliament and addresses to the MPs with the speech from the throne. The Royal residences are Buckingham Palace in London, Holy Roodhouse in Edinburgh and Windsor Castle in the suburbs of London. In law the Queen is Head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crow and the “supreme governor” of the established Church of England. As a result of a long process of evolution, during which the monarchy’s absolute power has been

progressively reduced, the Queen is impartial and acts on the advice of her ministers. The Queen and the royal family take part in many traditional ceremonies. Their visits to different parts of Britain and to many other countries attract considerable interest and publicity, and they are also closely involved in the work of many charities. The British Parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons and the Queen as its head. 2. Parliament Parliament is a supreme legislative body. England was the first country to have a Parliament. British Parliament consists of the monarch, the House of Lords (Upper Chamber) and the House of Commons (Lower Chamber). British Parliament holds its sittings in the Palace of Westminster. The Palace of Westminster mostly known as the

House of Parliament is situated on the embankment of the Thames. It is famous for its two great towers: Big Ben and Victoria tower. Big Ben belongs to the part of Westminster Palace which comprises the House of Commons. Victoria Tower is situated in the part of Westminster Palace which belongs to the House of Lords. When Parliament has a session there is a national flag on the Tower of Victoria. Besides two main chambers the Palace of Westminster has a number of working rooms for secretariat and deputies, rooms for the meeting of parliament committees, cafes, restaurants and libraries. The main functions of the Parliament are law-making, control of the government, granting sanctions to taxes and state expenses. but as far as the law making function is concerned , only the House

of Commons can propose the law. A proposed law, which is called a bill, is introduced by ministers on behalf of the British Government. Some deputies can also bring in bills. Such bills are called private members’ bills. In order to become an Act of Parliament a bill must pass through both Houses and the Royal assent. Ф-ОБ- 001/026 3. Government The British Parliamentary system depends on political parties. Most members of the government comprise representatives of the party which wins a majority of the seats in the House of Commons at a general election. The leader of the majority party becomes Prime Minister. The Prime Minister forms the government which usually consists of 60 or 70 ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular area in the government. From these

60 or 70 ministers the Prime Minister chooses a small group of 20 representatives. This group i9s called the Cabinet of Ministers or just the Cabinet. The Cabinet is appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Cabinet Ministers are the holders of the most important offices, for example, Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Home Secretary, Foreign Secretary, the Minister of Defense, the Minister of Health. The Cabinet defines the main trends of the British Government policy. The Cabinet works under the head of the Prime Minister. Frequent Cabinet meetings take place in the Prime Minister’s residence of (10, Downing Street). The power of the Cabinet is controlled by Parliament, for no bill which a minister prepares can become law until it is passed by an Act of

Parliament. 5. Бақылау сұрақтары: 1. British constitution 2. Parliament 3. House of Commons. 4. House of Lords. 6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары: “Great Britain is a constitutional country” 7. Қажетті әдебиеттер: 1. Электрондық оқулық 2. Burlacova V.V. “The UK of GB and Northern Ireland” Ф-ОБ- 001/026 Лекция 5 1.Лекция тақырыбы: Political system of Britain 2. Лекция жоспары: 1. House of Commons 2. House of Lords 3. Political parties 3. Лекция мақсаты: Үкіметтің министрлер кабинетімен таныстыру. Сайлау жүйесі 4. Лекция мазмұны: Үкіметтің