The down of British History — страница 5

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Dane’s land was now under the power of the kings of England. From the end of the 10 century the Danes began to devastate the country again. And for some period in the 11 century England came under the power of the Danish kings. Under both Anglo-Saxon and Danish kings feudal society continued to develop in England. More and more peasants lost their land and freedom. In the second half of the 10 century under the rule of Alfred’s descendants the Saxon monarchy was further consolidated. The Anglo-Saxons won several victories over the Danes, took away the Dane law and ruled over the whole of England. The Danes were not driven out of the country but they were made subjects of Wessex.They submitted to the power of the Anglo-Saxon kings and never tried to make the Dane law into a

separate kingdom. The Danes influenced the development of the country greatly. They were good sailors and traders and they favored the growth of town and the development of trade in England. Many Scandinavian words came into the English language at that time and are even used today. For example: Adjective - happy, low, loose, ill, ugly, weak Verbs - to take, to die, to call Nouns - sister, husband, sky, fellow, law, window, leg, wing, harbour. The Danes gave their own names to many of the towns they built.For example: Derby, Grimsby, Whitby Lowestoft etc. 2 .At the end of the 10 century the Danish invasions were resumed. The Anglo-Saxon kings were unable to organize any effective resistance. The Anglo-Saxon came again in great numbers the following year to demand more. At the

beginning of the 11 century England was conquered by the Danes once more. The Danish king Canute (1017-1035) became king of Denmark, Norway and England then made England the center of his power. But he was away from England in his kingdom of Denmark and so he divided the country into four parts called earldoms. They were Wessex, Murcia, North Umbria and East Anglia. An earl was appointed by the king to rule over each great earldom. The earls ruled over great territories and gradually they became very powerful. 3. Norman Conquest of England. Ф-ОБ- 001/026 Four different peoples invaded England. First came the Celts in the 6 century B.C.; then the Romans in the 1 A.D.; they were followed by the Anglo-Saxons in the 5 century; after them came the Danes at the end of 8 century. In

the 11 century England was invaded by the Normans. This was the fifth and the last invasions of England. In the 9 century while the Danes were plundering England another branch of North men who were related to the Danes were doing the same sailing to the Northern coasts of France. They came to be called the Normans, a variation of the word “North men”. As we know the Danes settled down in the conquered part of England known as the Dane law. Likewise, the Normans settled down on land conquered from the French king- a territory which is still called Normandy after these Normans. Many changes came about in the life of the Normans and the Danes after the 9 century. By the 11 century the Danes finally settled down as subject of the English kings. As time went on they gradually

mixed with the Anglo-Saxon among whom they lived. Thus they retained their Germanic language and many of their customs that were very much like those of the Anglo-Saxons. But the Normans who had settled down in France had quite different manners, customs and language. They lived among the French people, who were different people, with different manners, customs and language. They had learned to speak the French language, and in many ways they had become like the French themselves. The Normans lived under the rule of their own duke. In 1066 William, the Duke of Normandy, began to gather an army to invade Britain. The pretext for the invasions was the king who died in 1066.The king who died in 1066 had no children and Duke William cherished the hope that he would succeed to the

English throne. (According to the English law it was the Witenagemot that chose the next king).But the Witenagemot choose another relative of the deceased king the Anglo-Saxon Earl, Harold, William of Normandy claimed that England belonged to him and began preparations for a war to fight for the Crown. William landed in South of England and the battle between the Normans and the Anglo-Saxons took place in a little village in the neighborhood of the town now called Hastings. The victory at Hastings was only the beginning of the Conquest. It took several years for William and his baron to subdue the whole of England. Soon after the victory of Hastings, the Normans encircled London and the Witenagemot had to acknowledge William as the Lawful king of England. From that time the