The down of British History — страница 2

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long flowing moustaches but no beards. The Celts had no towns; they lived in villages. The Celtic language today. To this day the descendants of the ancient Celts live on the territory of the British Isles. The Welsh who live in Wales are of Celtic origin. People in most parts of Wales speak Welsh, Celtic language. In Highlands of Scotland as well as in the western parts of Ireland the people speak a tongue of Celtic origin too. Some words of the Celtic language can still be found in Modern English and most of them are geographical names. Many rivers, hills and towns are still called by their old Celtic names. Eg:*in England there are several rivers called Avon which in Celtic means a river. *the chalk highlands in the southern and south-eastern parts of England are called

"the Downs” this name comes from the word down which means "bare, open highland". 2. Roman Britain. 1) Roman Empire. In the 1 century B.C. when the in habitants of the British Isles were still living under the primitive communal system, the Roman Empire became the strongest slave-owning state in the Mediterranean. It was the last and greatest of civilization of the ancient world. The Romans ruled all of the civilized world and 1 century A.D. they conquered Britain. Britain was a province of the Roman Empire for about four centuries. While the Celts were still living in tribes the Romans were the most powerful people in the world. Roman society differed greatly from that of the Celts. It was a slave society divided into antagonistic classes. The main classes were

the slaves and the slave owners. The slave-owners made up the minority of the population but they owned the land, tools, buildings and slaves. The slaves possessed neither land nor tools & were themselves the property of the slave-owners. The Roman conquered all the countries around the Mediterranean Sea. In the wars in which Rome gained one province after another for the empire, many thousands of prisoners were taken. They were sold at the slave-market at Rome. Slaves were so cheap that all the Romans except the poorest had one or more,& rich slave-owners possessed hundreds of them. In the 1 B.C. & in the 1 A.D. slavery spread widely in the Roman Empire. 2)The Roman Conquest of Britain. One of the last countries to be conquered by Rome was France, or Gaul as it was

then called. The war against the Gauls, who were Celtic tribes, lasted for eight year. Julius Caesar was appointed Head of the Roman army which was sent to conquer Gaul. In the course of his campaigns Caesar reached the Channel & that was how the Romans came to see the white cliffs of the land of the British Celts. In 55 B.C. a Roman army of 10.000 men crossed the Channel and invaded Britain. The Celts saw their ships approaching & rushed to attack the invaders in the sea as they were landing. The Celts made a great impression on the Romans, who saw them for the first time in battle. In the next year, 54 B.C. Caesar again came to Britain, this time with larger forces (25000 men). The Romans who had better arms & were much better trained defeated the Celts in several

battles. At last Roman army invaded Britain and conquered the South-East. Other parts of the country were taken from time to time during the next forty years. 3) Roman influence in Britain. As a result of the conquest signs of Roman civilization spread over Britain. There had been no towns in Britain before the Romans conquered it. The civilized Romans were city Ф-ОБ- 001/026 dwellers and as soon as they had conquered Britain they began to build towns, splendid villas, public bath as in Rome itself.York, Gloucester, Lincoln and London became the chief Roman towns. London which had been a small trading settlement before the conquest now became a center for trade both by road and river. The Roman towns were military stations surrounded by walls for defense which were guarded by

the Roman warriors. Together with a high civilization the Romans brought exploitation and slavery to the British Isles. Among the Celts themselves inequality began to grow. The tribal chiefs and nobility became richer than other members of the tribe. Many of them became officials acting for Rome. The noble Celts adopted the mode of life of their conquerors. They lived in rich houses and they dressed as Romans. They were proud to wear the toga which was the sign of being a Roman citizen. The names of many modern English towns are of Latin origin too. The Roman towns were strongly fortified and they were called Castro which means "camps». This word can be recognized in various forms in such names as Chester, Winchester ,Manchester, Don caster, Lancaster. Any English town