The down of British History — страница 13

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of the middle ages are still current there. One of them is that the students have to wear gowns . 5. Бақылау сұрақтары: 1. Primary Education 2. Secondary Education 3. Technical schools 4. Colleges 5. Universities 6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары: “Oxford University”, “Cambridge University” 7. Қажетті әдебиеттер: 1. Электрондық оқулық 2. Burlacova V.V. “The UK of GB and Northern Ireland” Ф-ОБ- 001/026 Лекция 7 1.Лекция тақырыбы: The main economic regions 2. Лекция жоспары: 1. The south industrial and agricultural region 2. Midlands 3. Лекция мақсаты: Ірі порттармен

таныстыру.Ауылшаруашылықтың маңызың түсіндіру. 4. Лекция мазмұны: Негізгі экономикалық аудандар және қалалармен таныстыру. Олардың географиясы. 1. The main economic regions. Regional differences in the country’s economy are essential despite its small territory. Historically England proper is divided into the following economic regions the South industrial and Agricultural region, Central England or the Midlands, Lancashire, Yorkshire and North England. Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are also regarded as independent economic regions of the United Kingdom. Hence, the whole country consists of eight economic regions. The South industrial and

agricultural region. This is the most important region in the country in terms of industry, agriculture and population. The region includes all the south of England, both the south-west. It’s the northern border runs from the Bristol Channel to the west. The south is the region of various industries and of the intensive agriculture. At the centre of everything is the city of London and its influence has become so widespread that the south-east has often been called The London City Region. Today about 6.7 million people live in greater London. The outward movement of people from the inner districts of London is continuing. Its geographical position fitted London to be the chief commercial link of the UK with the outside world. One great advantage of the port, because of its high

tides, was the ability of the vessels to sail up the estuary into the heart of the city. London handles the largest part of the country’s overseas trade. From 5 to 10 per cent of the exports (by tonnage) pass through the port of London and 15-20 per cent of imports. The millions of people living in Greater London and its surrounding areas provide a market for many important goods, especially food stuffs. The importance of London as the industrial centre depends largely upon its situation at the centre of a vast national and international network of communications. The oldest industrial areas are near the city centre here industries such as clothing, furniture making and jewelry have tended to cluster in small distinct areas. The building of the docks near the city centre

encouraged the development of a vast range of industries which processed imported row materials. Later the extension of the thee dock system toward the sea lead to the development of such typical port industries, as oil refining, steel-making, cement manufacture, paper making , etc. As with most capital cities, London’s industries are extremely varied, among them electrical engineering, precision instrument production, radio engineering, aircraft production, manufacture of electronics equipment, the motorcar industry. These high technology industries are also sited in the satellite towns within Greater London. For example, just within Greater London, at Dagenham is the great Ford motor work. The chemicals and munitions industries are also developed in this region. Greater

London is a major centre of pharmaceutical products. Greater London accounts for 25 per cent of the industrial goods of the country’s output in terms of value. London has greater expansion in recent years; especially in the service industries provide employment for twice as many people as manufacturing industries. This is due to the enormous Ф-ОБ- 001/026 concentration of population in the city and the resultant need for service industries which occur there on a scale found now here else in Britain. For example, more then half of the national labor force employed in banking and insurance, the civil service and scientific research, work in London. Thousands of computers travel to central London each day to work in offices, banks, insurance, companies and shops. Add to this